G (volume 8)

G, g 1 the seventh letter of the alphabet. 2 (mus) the fifth note of the scale of C major.
gab(verb) (gabbed , gabbing ) (sl) to chatter or talk idly. n idle chat. gift of gab the ability to speak well or at length (it is important for salespeople to have the gift of the gab).
gable(noun) the pointed top of the end wall of a building with a sloping roof.
gadget(noun) a small useful tool or machine (labor-saving kitchen gadgets).
gag(verb) (gagged , gagging ) to stop someone speaking by forcibly stopping the mouth (burglars gagging the bank workers). n 1 something put in the mouth to prevent speech (use a scarf as a gag). 2 a joke (comedians telling the same old gags).
gage(verb), also gauge (Br) 1 to measure (instruments that gage the diameter of the wire). 2 to make an estimate of (gaging the strength of the wind from the movement of trees). 3 to make a judgment about, to judge (try to gage his likely reaction). n 1 a measuring-rod. 2 a measuring instrument. 3 the distance between the two rails of a railroad. 4 a help to guessing accurately (a reliable gage of his character).
gaggle(noun) 1 a flock of geese. 2 a disorderly group of people (a gaggle of neighbors gossiping about the accident).
gaggleCollective noun for comedians (A gaggle of comedians) (see list of collective nouns)
gaggleCollective noun for women (A gaggle of women) (see list of collective nouns)
gaily see gay.
gain(verb) 1 to obtain (gain an advantagegain speech). 3 to reduce the distance between oneself and someone or something (gain on the car in front). 4 (fml) to reach (gain the safety of her home). n profit, advantage.
gainful(adjective) (fml) paid, profitable (gainful employment).
gait(noun) manner of walking (walk with a rolling gait).
gala(noun) a day or time of feasting and rejoicing (a miners’ gala).
galaxy(noun) 1 a belt of stars stretching across the sky (e.g. the Milky Way). 2 a company of well-known, impressive, etc, people (a galaxy of stars at the movie premiere).
galaxyCollective noun for astronomers (A galaxy of astronomers) (see list of collective nouns)
galaxyCollective noun for governesses (A galaxy of governesses) (see list of collective nouns)
galaxyCollective noun for starfish (A galaxy of starfish) (see list of collective nouns)
galaxyCollective noun for starlets (A galaxy of starlets) (see list of collective nouns)
galaxyCollective noun for stars (A galaxy of stars) (see list of collective nouns)
gale(noun) a strong wind (ships wrecked in the gale).
Galeophobiafear of cats (see list of phobias)
Galileo GalileiItalian mathematician, inventor and astronomer
Galiophobiafear France or French culture (see list of phobias)
gallant(adjective) (fml) brave, noble (a gallant soldier). adv gallantly (especially old) polite and attentive to women.
galleon(noun) (old) a large sailing ship with several decks, as used by the Spaniards in the 15th and 16th centuries.
gallery(noun) 1 a raised floor over part of a church or theater (a good view of the stage from the front row of the gallery). 2 a narrow passage in a mine. 3 a room in which pictures, etc, are displayed (an exhibition of modern art at the local gallery).
galley(noun) 1 (old) a long low ship with sails and oars. 2 a ship’s kitchen.
gallimaufryCollective noun for noises (A gallimaufry of noises) (see list of collective nouns)
gallon(noun) in the imperial system, a measure for liquids or grain (= 4 quarts, 3.785 liters, or 231 cubic inches).
gallop(noun) a horse’s fastest speed. vb 1 to go at a gallop (racehorses galloping to the finish). 2 (inf) to move or do very quickly (children galloping through their homework so that they can watch TV).
Gallophobiafear France or French culture (see list of phobias)
gallows(noun) or npl a wooden frame for hanging criminals.
galore(adjective) in plenty (bargains galore at the sales).
galoshes(noun, plural) overshoes, usually of rubber, which protect the shoes in wet weather.
galvanize(verb), also galvanise (Br) 1 to give an electric shock. 2 to put on a coat of metal by electricity, to electroplate. 3 to rouse to activity (galvanized into action under threat of losing his job).
gamble(verb) 1 to play for money, to bet. 2 to take risks (the burglars gambled on there being no one in the house). n a risk. n gambler . n gambling .
gambol(verb) to jump about playfully. Also n.
game1(noun) 1 a sporting contest (interested in games such as football and hockey). 2 a single part of a set into which a game is divided (lose a game at tennis). 3 an amusement or diversion, a pastime (it was just a game—not to be taken seriously). 4 (inf) a scheme, a trick (wonder what his little game is). 5 birds or animals hunted for sport (shoot game such as pheasants). adj 1 brave, plucky (game enough to go on playing after being injured). 2 willing, ready (if you want to go to the movies, I’m game). vb to gamble (to make money gaming). make game of (fml) to make fun of, mock (make game of him for being small).
game2(adjective) lame, injured (his game leg).
gaming(noun) 1 gambling (lose a fortune on gaming). 2 the playing of computer games.
Gamophobia fear of marriage (see list of phobias)
gamutCollective noun for professions (A gamut of professions) (see list of collective nouns)
gander(noun) a male goose.
gang(noun) 1 a group of people, especially friends. 2 a group of people working on the same job (the gang working on the new road). 3 a group of criminals working together (the gang that held up the bank).
gangCollective noun for bison (A gang of bison) (see list of collective nouns)
gangCollective noun for convicts (A gang of convicts) (see list of collective nouns)
gangCollective noun for laborers (A gang of laborers) (see list of collective nouns)
gangCollective noun for thieves (A gang of thieves) (see list of collective nouns)
gangrene(noun) the rotting away of a part of the body (had his foot amputated because of gangrene). adj gangrenous .
gangster(noun) a member of an organized gang of criminals (local store-owners terrorized by gangsters threatening to rob them).
gangway(noun) 1 a movable footbridge from a ship to the shore. 2 a passage between rows of seats (the gangway in a theater).
gap(noun) 1 an opening (a gap in the fence). 2 a space between (bridge the gap between the banks). 3 something missing (the gap in his knowledge).
gape(verb) 1 to stare open-mouthed (stand gaping at the piles of gold). 2 to be wide open (the entrance to the cellar gaped open).
garage(noun) 1 a building in which an automobile can be kept (a garage attached to the house). 2 a shop where automobiles are repaired.
garb (old) n dress, clothes. vb to clothe (garbed in silk).
garbage(noun) 1 waste food (household garbage). 2 (inf) nonsense, anything of little value (newspaper reporting that was nothing but garbage).
garbled(adjective) mixed up and muddled (a garbled account of the accident).
Garbologystudy of garbage (see list of branches of science)
garden(noun) a piece of land on which flowers or vegetables are grown. vb to look after a garden, often as a hobby (try to find time to garden). n gardener . n gardening .
gargle(verb) to wash the throat with a mouthful of liquid by blowing it up and down in the back of the mouth. n a liquid prepared for gargling.
gargoyle(noun) a grotesquely carved spout in the form of a person’s or animal’s head, for carrying away water from a roof gutter (a cathedral with gargoyles).
garish(adjective) flashy, unpleasantly bright (garish colors).
garland(noun) a wreath of flowers (wear a garland round her neck). vb to decorate with a garland.
garlic(noun) a plant with a strong-smelling bulb used in cookery (chop up cloves of garlic).
garment(noun) (fml) any article of clothing (a store selling only ladies’ garments).
garnet(noun) a red mineral, sometimes a precious stone.
garnish(verb) to decorate (garnish the food).
garrison(noun) the soldiers sent to a place to defend it.
garter(noun) 1 a band of elastic to hold up a stocking. 2 a strap hanging from a kind of belt or corset to hold up a stocking.
gas(noun) 1 matter in the form of an air-like vapor. 2 any of various gases or mixtures of gases used as fuel (natural gasga-shus/.
gas mask(noun) a mask that enables one to breathe when surrounded by poisonous gas (gas masks were issued in both World Wars).
gash(noun) a wide, deep wound or cut (the gash on her arm needed ten stitches). vb to cut deeply (he gashed his thumb with a carving knife).
gasoline(noun) a liquid obtained from a mixture of gas and petroleum, used as a fuel for motor vehicles.
gasp(verb) 1 to breathe with difficulty, to pant (he was gasping for breath after the race). 2 to draw in the breath suddenly through the mouth (gasp in horror at the sight). n the act or sound of gasping (his dying gasp/a gasp of horror)
gassy(adjective) full of gas, fizzy (gassy drinks).
gastric(adjective) having to do with the stomach (a gastric complaint).
Gastroenterologystudy of the digestive system (see list of branches of science)
Gastronomystudy of fine dining (see list of branches of science)
gastronomy(noun) the art of good eating. adj gastronomic , gastronomical .
gate(noun) 1 a movable frame of wood, iron, etc, to close an opening in a wall or fence (the garden gate). 2 an entrance or way out, especially in an airport (the boarding gate). 3 the number of people who pay to see a game (expecting a large gate for the basketball game). 4 the total sum of money paid for entrance to a sports ground.
gateau(noun) (pl gateaux or gateaus) a large cake, often filled and decorated with cream (a chocolate gateau for dessert).
gatecrash(verb) to attend a party, etc, without an invitation. n gatecrasher .
gateway(noun) 1 the opening closed by a gate (the gateway to the orchard). 2 the way or path to (the gateway to a successful career).
gather(verb) 1 to bring or come together (a crowd gathered). 2 to collect, to pick (gather flowers). 3 to draw cloth together in small folds (gathered at the waist). 4 to come to the conclusion (we gather he is sick). n a fold in cloth held in position by thread (the dress had a full skirt with lots of gathers at the waist).
gathering(noun) a meeting (a gathering of protesters against the new freeway).
Gatophobia fear of cats (see list of phobias)
gaudy(adjective) showy, flashy, too bright (gaudy colors). adv gaudily . n gaudiness .
gaunt(adjective) very thin, haggard (the gaunt faces of starving people).
gauntlet(noun) 1 (old) an iron glove worn as part of a suit of armor. 2 a type of glove covering the wrist (driving gauntlets). run the gauntlet to be criticized or attacked from all sides (have to run the gauntlet of a lot of newspaper articles on his private life). throw down the gauntlet to challenge (throw down the gauntlet and challenge him to a tennis match).
gauze(noun) a light cloth that one can see through (bandages of gauze). adj gauzy .
gave pt of give.
gawky , gawkish(adjective) clumsy, awkward (gawky teenagers).
gay(adjective) 1 lively, fond of enjoyment, cheerful (in a gay moodstreets gay with Christmas lights). 2 homosexual (especially of men). adv gaily .
gaze(verb) to look hard at without looking away (gaze at him in disbelief/gazing into space). n a fixed look.
gazeCollective noun for raccoons (A gaze of raccoons) (see list of collective nouns)
gazelle(noun) a small antelope.
gazette(noun) a government news sheet containing official notices, appointments, etc.
gazetteer(noun) a book listing places in alphabetical order and telling where they can be found on a map (a world gazetteer).
gear(noun) 1 the set of tools, equipment, etc, used for a particular job, sport, expedition, etc (camping gear). 2 any arrangement of levers, toothed wheels, etc, that passes motion from one part of a machine to another (put the car into reverse gear).
geese see goose.
gel(noun) a smooth, soft substance resembling jelly, often used in products for the skin or hair (shower gel).
gelatin(noun), also gelatine a jelly-like substance made from boiled-down bones, etc, used as a thickening agent in jellies, etc.
gelignite(noun) a powerful explosive (the soldiers were told to blow up the bridge with gelignite).
Geliophobia fear of laughter (see list of phobias)
Gelotophobia fear of being laughed at (see list of phobias)
gem(noun) 1 a precious stone. 2 anything or anyone that is thought to be especially good (the gem of his stamp collection/her mother is a gem).
Gemmologystudy of gems and jewels (see list of branches of science)
gender(noun) (gram) 1 a grouping of nouns roughly according to the sex (masculine, feminine, or neuter) of the things they name. 2 (of a person or animal) the state of being male or female (discriminated against on the grounds of gender).
Gender Studiesstudy of gender (see list of branches of science)
gene(noun) any of the basic elements of heredity passed from parents to their offspring, that cause the offspring to have certain features that the parents have.
genealogist(noun) one who studies genealogy.
Genealogystudy of descent of families (see list of branches of science)
genealogy(noun) 1 the tracing of the history of a family to discover all its ancestors and branches. 2 a diagram showing this. adj genealogical .
genera see genus.
general(adjective) 1 including every one of a class or group (a general lowering of prices throughout the industry/wet weather that is general throughout the state). 2 not specialized (general knowledge). 3 common, usual, normal (the general procedure). 4 taken as a whole, overall (the invalid still has a weak arm but her general condition is good). 5 widespread, public (information that has become general). 6 without details (a general report). n 1 a high-ranking army officer. 2 the commander of an army.
generalize(verb), also generalise (Br) 1 to work out from a few facts an idea that covers a great number of cases (you must not generalize from just two examples). 2 to talk in general terms without details (generalizing about educational problems). n generalization .
generally(adverb) in most cases (generally it is hot in summer).
generate(verb) to bring into life, to produce, to be the cause of (a meeting generating ideas).
generation(noun) 1 the act of bringing into existence or producing (the generation of new ideas). 2 a single step in family descent (three generations at the old man’s birthday party). 3 people living at the same time (most of the people of her generation are dead).
generator(noun) a machine for producing electricity, steam, etc.
generic(adjective) being a member of a group or class (see genus). n (of a drug, etc) a product not patented or sold with a brand name.
generous(adjective) 1 giving or given freely and gladly (generous hostsje-ne-ros-i-teeje-ne-rus-lee/.
Genesiologystudy of reproduction and heredity (see list of branches of science)
genesis(noun) (fml) beginning, origin. n Genesis the first book of the Christian Bible.
genetic(adjective) of genes, of genetics.
genetically modified adj denoting food derived from a plant, whose genetic material or structure has been altered by technological means to improve growth or inhibit disease.
Geneticsstudy of genes (see list of branches of science)
genetics(noun) the science of breeding and family characteristics.
genial(adjective) friendly in manner, cheerful (genial hostsjee-nee-a-li-teejee-nee-a-lee/.
Geniophobia fear of chins (see list of phobias)
genital(adjective) having to do with reproduction (genital organs). npl genitals , genitalia the genital organs.
genius(noun) 1 extraordinary skill or ability (amazed at the genius of Emily Dickinson). 2 a person of extraordinary intelligence (Einstein was a genius). 3 (inf) a natural ability (a genius for offending people).
genome n a full set of chromosomes.
Genophobiafear of sexual intercourse (see list of phobias)
genteel(adjective) over-refined in manners, affected (she always used a genteel voice on the telephone).
gentile(adjective) non-Jewish. Also n.
gentility(noun) the state of having good manners or being of good birth.
gentle(adjective) 1 (old) well-born (people of gentle birth). 2 not rough or violent in manner, unwilling to hurt anyone (her gentle handling of the situationjen-tul-nessjent-lee/.
gentleman(noun) (pl gentlemen ) 1 (old) a man of good birth. 2 a well-mannered and kindly man (he was a gentleman and rose to give the old lady his seat in the bus).
gentlemanly(adjective) well-mannered.
gentry(noun) people of good but not noble birth (landed gentry).
genuflect(verb) (fml) to bend the knee in respect (courtiers genuflecting before the king). n genuflection .
genuine(adjective) 1 true, real (a genuine Van Gogh painting). 2 sincere, without pretense or dishonesty (feel genuine concern for her situation). adv genuinely . n genuineness .
Genuphobia fear of knees or the act of kneeling (see list of phobias)
genus(noun) (pl genera ) a kind or class of animals, plants, etc, with certain characteristics in common. adj generic .
Geochemistrystudy of chemistry of the earth's crust (see list of branches of science)
Geochronologystudy of measuring geological time (see list of branches of science)
Geographystudy of surface of the earth and its inhabitants (see list of branches of science)
geography(noun) the study of the surface of the earth and its climate, peoples, cities, etc. n geographer . adj geographic , geographical .
Geologystudy of the rocks of a planet (see list of branches of science)
geology(noun) the study of the rocks, etc, forming the earth’s crust. n geologist . adj geological .
geometry(noun) a branch of mathematics dealing with the measurement of lines, figures, and solids. adj geometric , geometrical .
Geomorphogenystudy of the origins of land forms (see list of branches of science)
Geoponicsstudy of agriculture (see list of branches of science)
Geotechnicsstudy of increasing habitability of the earth (see list of branches of science)
Gephydrophobiafear of crossing bridges (see list of phobias)
Gephyrophobiafear of crossing bridges (see list of phobias)
Gephysrophobia fear of crossing bridges (see list of phobias)
geranium(noun) a strongly scented plant, with red, pink, or white flowers.
Gerascophobiafear of growing old or aging (see list of phobias)
Geratologystudy of decadence and decay (see list of branches of science)
gerbil(noun) a small rat-like rodent, often kept as a pet.
germ(noun) 1 a tiny living cell that has the power to grow into a plant or animal. 2 the beginning of anything (the germ of an idea). 3 a disease-carrying microbe (a disinfectant claiming to kill all germs).
German(adjective) of or relating to Germany. n the language spoken in Germany.
Germanophobiafear of Germany or German culture. (see list of phobias)
germicide(noun) a substance that kills germs.
germinate(verb) to begin to grow (seeds germinating).
Gerocomystudy of old age (see list of branches of science)
Gerontologystudy of the elderly and aging (see list of branches of science)
Gerontophobiafear of old people or of growing old. (see list of phobias)
gestationCollective noun for obstetricians (A gestation of obstetricians) (see list of collective nouns)
gesticulate(verb) to make meaningful signs with the hands, especially while speaking, usually for emphasis (gesticulating wildlyje-sti-cyu-lay-shun/.
gesture(noun) 1 a movement of the hands, head, etc, to express feeling (with a gesture of despair). 2 an action showing one’s attitude or intentions (a gesture of friendship). vb to make a gesture.
get(verb) (pt got , prp getting , pp gotten ) 1 to obtain (get money). 2 to reach (get there). 3 to become (get older).
Geumaphobiafear of taste (see list of phobias)
Geumophobia fear of taste (see list of phobias)
geyser(noun) a hot water spring that shoots up into the air (geysers in Iceland).
ghastly(adjective) 1 (fml or lit) deathly pale (his face ghastly with fear). 2 horrible, terrible (a ghastly murdera ghastly dress). 4 (inf) unwell, upset (feel ghastly after a drinking bout). n ghastliness .
gherkin(noun) a small cucumber used for pickling.
ghetto(noun) (pl ghettos , ghettoes ) a part of a city, often poor, in which a certain group of people, often immigrants, lives.
ghost(noun) the spirit of a dead person appearing to one living. adj ghost-like , ghostly . n ghostliness .
ghoul(noun) 1 a spirit said to prey on corpses. 2 a person who takes an unusually great interest in death, disaster, and other horrible things (ghouls at the scene of the fatal accident). adj ghoulish .
giant(noun) 1 in fairy stories, a huge man (the giant in “Jack and the Beanstalk”). 2 a person of unusually great height and size (the giants in the basketball team). 3 a person of very great ability or importance (one of the political giants of the 19th century). f giantess .
gibberish(noun) nonsense, meaningless words (talk gibberish).
gibbon(noun) a type of ape.
gibe, jibe(verb) to mock, to jeer at (gibe at their ragged clothes/jibing at his attempts to climb the tree). Also n.
giddy(adjective) 1 dizzy (feel giddy at the top of the ladder). 2 changeable, not serious in character, fond of amusement (giddy young girls). n giddiness .
gift(noun) 1 a present (Christmas gifts). 2 a natural ability to do something (a gift for public speaking). vb to give as a present (money gifted by alumni).
gifted(adjective) having exceptional natural ability (gifted children).
gig(noun) 1 (inf) a single booking for a jazz or pop band, etc; a single night’s performance. 2 (old) a light two-wheeled carriage.
gigantic(adjective) huge, giant-like (a gigantic machine).
Gigantologystudy of giants (see list of branches of science)
giggle(verb) to laugh quietly, but in a silly way (children giggling at the practical joke).
giggleCollective noun for girls (A giggle of girls) (see list of collective nouns)
gild(verb) to cover with gold (a gilded statue).
gill1(noun) a quarter of a pint.
gill2(noun) the organ through which a fish breathes.
gilt(adjective) covered with gold or gold paint (a gilt brooch). n the gold or imitation of gold used in gilding.
gimmick(noun) an ingenious gadget or device to attract attention (a sales gimmick).
gin1(noun) a strong alcoholic drink flavored with juniper berries (gin and tonic).
gin2(noun) 1 a trap or snare (a rabbit caught in a gin). 2 a machine for separating cotton from its seeds.
ginger(noun) 1 a hot-tasting root used as a spice (crystallized ginger/chop ginger for an Indian dish). adj of a reddish-yellow color (ginger hair).
gingerbread(noun) treacle cake flavored with ginger.
gingerly(adverb) carefully, cautiously (walk gingerly on the icy road).
gingham(noun) a striped or checked cotton cloth (gingham tablecloths).
gipsy (Br) see gypsy.
giraffe(noun) an African animal with a very long neck and long legs.
girder(noun) a heavy beam of iron or steel used to bridge an open space when building.
girdle(noun) 1 a kind of belt. 2 (fml or lit) anything that surrounds (a girdle of green around the village). vb to surround as with a belt.
girl(noun) 1 a female child (a baby girl). 2 a young woman. 3 a daughter (they have two boys and a girl). n girlhood .
Girl Scout(noun) a member of an international youth organization for girls.
girlfriend(noun) 1 a female friend (she is having lunch with her girlfriends). 2 a female romantic partner (he is out on a date with his girlfriend).
girlish(adjective) like or of a girl (a girlish figure/girlish laughter).
girth(noun) 1 the measurement around the waist (a man of enormous girth). 2 the distance around something cylindrical in shape (the girth of the tree). 3 a strap that holds the saddle in place on a horse’s back.
gist(noun) the meaning, the most important part (follow the gist of what he was saying).
give(verb) (pt gave , pp given ) 1 to make a present of (give him a book for his birthday). 2 to hand over to (give the money to the bank). 3 to allow (given a chance). 4 to utter (give a shout). 5 to produce (cows giving milk). 6 to organize, to hold (give a party). 7 to yield, bend, break, etc (the heavy door gave under pressure). n giver . give and take allowing some of another’s views to be correct. give away 1 to give as a gift. 2 to tell something secret (give away their hiding place). give ground to go backward (the army had to give ground). give in to admit defeat (after a long argument he gave in and admitted he was wrong). give out to report (give out the news of her death). give up 1 to leave to be taken by others (give up a seat to a pregnant woman). 2 to stop (give up eating meat). 3 to lose hope (so long unemployed that he has given up). give way 1 to stop in order to allow someone or something to pass (give way to traffic coming from the left). 2 to be replaced by (anger that gave way to fear). 3 to break and fall (a bridge that gave way).
glacial(adjective) 1 of ice. 2 icy, very cold (glacial winds). 3 (fml) very cold in manner (a glacial stare).
glacier(noun) a large slow-moving river of ice.
glacierCollective noun for freezers (A glacier of freezers) (see list of collective nouns)
Glaciologystudy of ice ages and glaciation (see list of branches of science)
glad(adjective) pleased, cheerful (glad for her success). adv gladly . n gladness .
gladden(verb) to make glad (news that gladdened his heart).
glade(noun) (fml) a clear space in a wood.
gladiator(noun) in Ancient Rome, a man trained to fight with other men or wild animals for public entertainment. adj gladiatorial .
glamor(noun), also glamour (Br) apparent charm and attractiveness that depends entirely on the outer appearance, dress, etc (the glamor of the movie stargla-mu-rus/. vb glamorize, also glamourize (Br), also glamourise (Br).
glance(noun) a quick look (give a glance over her shoulder). vb 1 to look at for a moment (glance at the newspaper). 2 to hit the side of something and fly off in another direction (the bullet glanced off the wall).
gland(noun) an organ in the body that produces certain fluids necessary to the health of the body (the thyroid gland). adj glandular .
glare(noun) 1 a dazzling light (the glare of the car’s headlights). 2 an angry or fierce look (give her a glare for going before him in the queue). Also vb.
glaring(adjective) 1 having a fierce look. 2 very obvious (a glaring error). adv glaringly .
glass(noun) 1 hard, easily broken transparent material (a door made of glass). 2 a mirror (look in the glass/a looking glass). 3 a glass drinking vessel (a glass of milk). adj made of glass.
glasses(noun) a pair of lenses set in a frame resting on the nose and ears, used to improve the wearer’s eyesight, or to protect the eyes from strong sunlight.
glaze(verb) 1 to fit with glass (glaze the new windows). 2 to cover with a smooth shiny surface (glaze a cake with frosting/glazed fruit). 3 to become fixed or glassy-looking (eyes glazing over). n a smooth shiny surface (a glaze on the tiles).
glazier(noun) one who fixes glass in windows.
gleam(noun) 1 a small ray of light, especially one that disappears quickly (the gleam of a match in the darkness). 2 a temporary appearance of some quality (a faint gleam of humorpolished tables gleaming). 2 to be expressed with a sudden light, to be bright (eyes gleaming with excitement/excitement gleamed in her eyes).
gleanCollective noun for herrings (A glean of herrings) (see list of collective nouns)
glee(noun) pleasure, joy (full of glee at their victory).
gleeful(adjective) joyful (gleeful at his enemy’s defeat). adv gleefully .
glen(noun) (Scot) a narrow valley.
glib(adjective) 1 quick to answer, able to find words easily, fluent (a glib salesperson). 2 spoken fluently and without hesitation (a glib reply). n glibness .
glide(verb) to move smoothly or without effort (skiers gliding down the mountain).
glider(noun) an aircraft with no engine.
glimmer(verb) to burn low and unsteadily, to shine faintly (a candle glimmering at the end of the dark passage). n 1 a low and unsteady light (the glimmer from the candle) 2 a slight sign or amount (a glimmer of hope).
glimpse(noun) a quick or passing view of (catch a glimpse of her in the crowd). vb to see for a moment only (glimpsing her red hat in the crowd).
glint(verb) to flash, to sparkle (eyes glinting with anger). n 1 a brief flash of light. 2 a brief indication (glint of anger in her eyes).
glintCollective noun for goldfish (A glint of goldfish) (see list of collective nouns)
glisten(verb) (especially of wet or polished surfaces) to shine, to give a bright, steady light, to sparkle (dew drops glistening on the grass/bodies glistening with sweat). Also n.
glitch(noun) something that goes unexpectedly wrong, especially with computers (a computer glitch meant I could not save the file).
glitter(verb) to sparkle, to give a bright, flickering light (stars glittering in the clear skygli-te-ree/.
glitterCollective noun for generals (A glitter of generals) (see list of collective nouns)
gloat(verb) to look at with greedy or evil enjoyment (gloat over her neighbor’s misfortune/a miser gloating over his gold).
global(adjective) 1 affecting the whole world (a global issue like poverty). 2 relating to or including the whole of something (the industry is seeking a global pay settlement). adv globally .
global warming(noun) a gradual increase in the world’s temperatures believed to be caused, in part at least, by the greenhouse effect.
globalization(noun), also globalisation (Br) the process by which a business firm or organization begins to operate on an international basis (the globalization of the insurance industry).
globe(noun) 1 a ball, a sphere. 2 anything ball-shaped (a new globe for the light). 3 the earth (from all parts of the globe). 4 a map of the earth printed on to a ball.
Globophobiafear of balloons (see list of phobias)
globular(adjective) ball-shaped.
globule(noun) a drop, a very small ball (globules of wax from a candle).
gloom(noun) 1 darkness. 2 sadness.
gloomy(adjective) 1 dark, dim (gloomy corridors). 2 sad-looking, depressed (gloomy about the future/in a gloomy mood).
glorify(verb) 1 to praise or worship (glorifying God). 2 to make seem better, more beautiful, more important, etc (a book that glorified war). n glorification .
glorifyingCollective noun for liars (A glorifying of liars) (see list of collective nouns)
glorious(adjective) 1 splendid, magnificent (a glorious summer’s dayglorious deeds).
glory(noun) 1 honor, fame (win glory on the battlefield). 2 brightness, beauty, splendor (the glory of the sunset). 3 worship, adoration (glory to God). 4 a special cause for pride, respect, honor, etc (one of the glories of American justice). vb to take pride in, to rejoice (glorying in one’s freedom/gloried in her success).
gloss1(noun) a bright or shiny surface. vb to give a shine to. gloss over to try to make appear pleasing or satisfactory.
gloss2(noun) 1 a note written in the margin or between lines (a gloss explaining the word). 2 an explanation, interpretation (politicians putting different glosses on the situation). vb to provide with glosses, to annotate (expressions that need to be glossed).
glossary(noun) a list of words with their meanings (a glossary of cooking terms in the recipe book).
Glossologystudy of language; study of the tongue (see list of branches of science)
Glossophobia fear of public speaking (see list of phobias)
glossy(adjective) smooth and shining (she had very glossy hair).
glove(noun) a covering of cloth or leather for the hand, each finger being separately covered (gloves wet from throwing snowballs).
glow(verb) 1 to give out light and heat but no flame (coal glowing in the grate/a cigarette glowing in the dark). 2 to look or feel warm or red (cheeks glowing after exercise). n 1 a bright steady light (the glow of the furnace). 2 a warm look or feeling (a healthy glow after their walk). 3 a good feeling (feel a glow of satisfaction).
glower(verb) to give an angry look (he glowered at the driver who had bumped his car).
glowing(adjective) 1 full of praise (a glowing account of her work). 2 giving out heat (glowing coal).
glow-worm(noun) an insect that sends out a light in the dark.
glucose(noun) grape sugar, a natural sugar found in fruits and plants.
glue(noun) a substance used for sticking things together. vb to stick with glue (gluing the pieces of the vase together/glued the newspaper cuttings in a scrapbook).
gluey(adjective) sticky.
glum(adjective) 1 sad, gloomy (everyone had a glum expression on their face). 2 downcast (feel glum about the future).
glut(verb) (glutted , glutting ) 1 to fill too full, to supply with more than is needed (glut the market with cheap foreign goods). 2 to stuff, to gorge oneself (glutted with food). n too great an amount (a glut of soft fruit on the market).
glutCollective noun for commercials (A glut of commercials) (see list of collective nouns)
gluten(noun) a sticky protein found in wheat and some other cereal grains (allergic to gluten).
glutinous(adjective) (fml) sticky (a glutinous substance).
glutton(noun) 1 a person who eats too much. 2 (inf) a person who is always ready for more (a glutton for work).
gluttonous(adjective) greedy, too fond of food.
gluttony(noun) a fondness for eating a lot; love of food (disgusted by his gluttony).
glycerin(noun) a colorless sweet liquid obtained from fats.
Glyptologystudy of gem engravings (see list of branches of science)
GM(abbreviation) for genetically modified.
gnarled(adjective) twisted and having a rough surface (gnarled tree trunks/hands gnarled with age).
gnash(verb) to strike the teeth together, to grind the teeth, often as a sign of emotion (gnash his teeth in rage).
gnat(noun) a small biting insect.
gnaw(verb) 1 to keep on biting so as to wear away gradually (dogs gnawing bones). 2 to cause continued distress to (guilt gnawing away at her).
gnome(noun) in fairytales, a mischievous fairy supposed to live underground.
Gnosiologystudy of knowledge; philosophy of knowledge (see list of branches of science)
Gnosiophobia fear of knowledge (see list of phobias)
Gnotobiologystudy of life in germ-free conditions (see list of branches of science)
gnu(noun) a large African antelope.
go(verb) (pt went , pp gone ) 1 to move (go backward). 2 to become (go mad/go white-haired with age). n going. go for to attack (the dog went for the postman). go hard with (fml) to turn out badly for (it went hard with our army in the battle). go in for to take interest in (she works hard and doesn’t go in for hobbies). go under to fail (hope that the firm does not go under).
go-ahead(adjective) ready to try out new ideas (a go-ahead firm). n permission to proceed (get the go-ahead for the new road).
goal(noun) 1 an aim, target, object of one’s efforts (his main goal in life). 2 in some games, the frame through which players try to pass the ball (the goalkeeper did a good job of guarding the goal in the hockey match). 3 a score at football, hockey, etc (the team that scored a goal).
goalkeeper(noun) the player who defends a goal.
goat(noun) an animal with horns, related to the sheep (goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world).
goatee(noun) a neat pointed beard on a man’s chin.
gobble(verb) 1 to eat quickly (children gobbling down their food before going out to play). 2 to make a noise like a turkey.
go-between(noun) one who arranges an agreement between two other parties (act as a go-between in the talks between the firms).
goblet(noun) a drinking cup without a handle (silver wine goblets).
goblin(noun) in fairytales, a mischievous fairy.
God(noun) 1 in various religions, the creator of the world, the Supreme Being. 2 a man of superior charms or excellence.
god(noun) any being worshiped for having more than supernatural powers (the Roman god of war).
goddess(noun) 1 a female god (the Greek goddess of beauty). 2 a woman of superior charms or excellence.
godfather(noun) a man who makes the promises for a child at a Christian baptism. f godmother . Also godchild, goddaughter, god-parent, godson.
God-fearing(adjective) deeply religious (a god-fearing old man/a god-fearing people).
godless(adjective) (fml) not believing in God; wicked (a godless people).
godlike(adjective) 1 like God. 2 like a god (a godlike beauty).
godly(adjective) religious, following God’s laws (a godly mangod-lee-ness/.
goggles(noun, plural) a type of glasses, especially those worn to protect the eyes (machine operators wearing protective goggles).
go-kart(noun) a small racing vehicle made of an open frame on four wheels with an engine (go-kart racing).
gold(noun) 1 a precious metal (rings made of gold). 2 wealth, money (a miser counting his gold). 3 the color of gold (hair of gold).
golden(adjective) 1 made of gold. 2 of the color of gold (golden sands/golden hair). 3 valuable (a golden opportunity).
goldfinch(noun) a beautiful singing bird.
goldfish(noun) a small red Chinese carp, often kept in an aquarium or pond.
goldsmith(noun) a worker in gold.
golf(noun) an outdoor game played with clubs and a hard ball (play a few rounds of golf). Also vb. n golfer .
gondola(noun) 1 a long narrow boat used on the canals of Venice. 2 the car of an airship.
gondolier(noun) a man who rows a gondola.
gone pp of go.
gong(noun) a flat metal plate that makes a ringing sound when struck (sound the gong for dinner).
good(adjective) 1 right, morally acceptable, virtuous (a good deedgood eyesight). 3 pleasant, agreeable, welcome (good news/good to see some sunshine). 4 fit, competent (a good teacher). 5 well-behaved (tell the children to be good). 6 kindly (the good fairy in the story). 7 clever (good at math). 8 fit to be eaten (good fruit affected by the bad). 9 beneficial (food that is good for one).
Good Friday(noun) the Friday before Easter on which Christians commemorate the crucifixion and death of Christ.
goodbye(noun) and interj a farewell greeting.
good-looking(adjective) handsome.
good-natured(adjective) kindly (good-natured neighbors).
goodness(noun) the quality of being good.
goods(noun, plural) 1 movable property (stolen goods). 2 things for buying or selling (a range of electrical goods).
goodwill(noun) 1 kindly feeling (full of goodwill even toward people who treat him badly). 2 the good name and popularity of a store or business (they took into consideration the goodwill of his business).
goose(noun) (pl geese ) 1 a web-footed farmyard fowl. 2 (fml or old) a foolish person (she was a goose to believe them).
goose flesh(noun), also goose bumps , goose pimples(noun, plural) a roughness or bumpiness of the skin due to cold or fear.
gooseberry(noun) 1 a thorny shrub. 2 its edible berry. 3 an unwanted third person when two people, especially lovers, want to be alone.
gore1(verb) to wound with a tusk or horn (a farmhand gored by a bull).
gore2(noun) (fml or lit) blood from a dead or wounded person, especially when formed into solid lumps (a battlefield covered in goregoa-ree/.
gorge(noun) 1 (old) the throat (a bone stuck in his gorge). 2 (found in place names) a deep narrow pass between hills (the Cheddar Gorge). make one’s gorge rise to sicken, to fill with disgust. vb to overeat, to eat greedily.
gorgeous(adjective) 1 (inf) very beautiful and glamorous (gorgeous models). 2 splendid, magnificent, richly decorated or colored (walls covered with gorgeous tapestries/gorgeous silks and satins). 3 (inf) giving a lot of pleasure, marvelous (a gorgeous day).
gorilla(noun) a large African ape.
goringCollective noun for butchers (A goring of butchers) (see list of collective nouns)
gorysee gore.
gosling(noun) a young goose.
gospel(noun) 1 the teaching of Jesus Christ. 2 in the Christian New Testament, the story of the life of Christ as written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, or John. 3 any complete system of beliefs (spread the gospel of a healthy diet). 4 (inf) the truth (I thought his story was untrue but he swore that it was gospel). 5 religious music in a popular or folk style and African-American in origin.
gossamer(noun) 1 cobweb-like threads floating in the air or resting on bushes. 2 any very light material (a wedding veil of gossamer). adj very light.
gossip(noun) 1 one who likes to hear and spread news about the private affairs of others (the village gossips starting whispering in the post office). 2 idle talk (spread gossip about her). vb 1 to spread stories about others. 2 to talk idly or chatter, often about other people (neighbors gossiping over the fence).
gotpt, pp of get.
Gothic(adjective) in the pointed-arch style of architecture common in the Middle Ages.
gotten pp of get.
Gouda(noun) a mild, round Dutch cheese.
gouge(noun) a chisel with a curving blade for cutting grooves. vb 1 to make a groove or hole in (gouging holes in the paintwork). 2 to scoop out, to force out (gouge her eyes out as a torture).
gourd(noun) 1 a large fleshy fruit (e.g. cucumber, melon). 2 the hollow skin of a gourd used as a bottle or cup.
gourmand(noun) 1 (fml) a greedy eater, a glutton. 2 a person who likes good food, often to excess.
gourmet(noun) a person who is a good judge of wines and food (a restaurant guide written by a gourmet).
gout(noun) a disease causing painful swelling of the joints.
govern(verb) 1 to control and direct the affairs of (a country governed by a dictator). 2 to control, to guide, to influence (price of goods governed to some extent by demand/a business policy governed by several factors). 3 to exercise restraint over, to control, to regulate (try to govern her temper).
governess(noun) a woman who looks after and teaches children in their home.
government(noun) 1 the act or way of ruling (a democratic system of government). 2 the group of people who direct the affairs of a country (ministers resigning from the government). adj governmental .
governor(noun) 1 in the United States, a person who is elected as head of a state (the Governor of Texas). 2 a member of the committee of people who govern a school, hospital, etc (on the school’s board of governors). 3 (old) a person governing a province or colony (the former governor of Australia).
gown(noun) 1 a woman’s dress, usually formal (an evening gown). 2 a long robe worn by members of clergy, teachers, lawyers, etc (students required to wear academic gowns to graduate).
grab(verb) (grabbed , grabbing ) 1 to take hold of with a sudden quick movement (grab the child to prevent her being run overgrab her seat). 3 (inf) to affect, to influence, to find favor with (how does a trip to the movies grab you?). Also n.
grace(noun) 1 the mercy or kindness associated with God. 2 a sense of what is right or decent (he finally had the grace to apologize). 3 a delay allowed as a favor (a few days’ grace to repay the loan). 4 beauty and effortlessness of movement (dance with grace). 5 a short prayer said at meal times. 6 a title of respect used to dukes, archbishops, etc (Your Grace). n 1 to honor (grace the dinner with her presence). 2 to adorn (flowers gracing the table).
graceful(adjective) beautiful in appearance or movement (graceful dancers). adv gracefully .
gracious(adjective) kind, pleasant, polite (our gracious hostess). adv graciously .
grade(noun) 1 a placing in an order according to one’s merit, rank, performance, etc (grades achieved in exams). 2 rank (various grades in the army). vb 1 to arrange in grades (grade the wool according to quality/grading eggs according to size). 2 to assign a grade to (the teacher is grading papers). 3 to pass or change from one thing to another gradually (blues and reds grading into purple).
gradient(noun) 1 a slope (the child tumbled down the steep gradient). 2 the steepness of a slope (the gradient of the hill/a gradient of 1 in 7).
gradual(adjective) slow and steady, little by little (a gradual improvementgra-ju-wa-lee/.
graduate(verb) 1 to receive an academic degree or diploma. 2 (fml) to divide into stages or equal spaces (a graduated tax system). n a person who holds an academic degree or diploma (a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania). adj relating to people who already hold one academic degree or diploma (a graduate student).
graduation(noun) the receiving of an academic degree or dilpoma.
graffiti(noun, plural) (sing graffito rare) writing or drawings, often humorous or rude, scribbled or sprayed unofficially or illegally on walls or other surfaces in public places (the subway walls are covered in graffiti).
graft1(verb) 1 to fix a piece cut from one plant on to another so that it grows into it. 2 to put skin cut from one part of the body on to another part (graft skin from his thigh to his arm after he was scalded). 3 to replace an organ or tissue of the body by one belonging to someone else; to transplant (they decided to graft a kidney from my brother to replace my damaged kidney). n the cutting or skin so grafted.
graft2(noun) (inf) 1 bribery and corruption (accused of graft by his political opponents). 2 wealth made by illegal use of office. 3 hard work (make money by sheer hard graft).
graham cracker(noun) a cracker made with graham flour.
graham flour(noun) wholewheat flour.
grain(noun) 1 a seed of wheat, corn, etc. 2 corn in general (grain ground into flour). 3 a very small hard particle (a grain of salt). 4 a very small amount (she told me that there was not a grain of truth in it). 5 in the imperial system, the smallest measure of weight (1 pound = 7000 grains). 6 the pattern of markings in wood, leather, etc. vb to imitate the grain of wood when painting doors, etc.
gram(noun) the basic unit of weight in the metric system.
Graminologystudy of grasses (see list of branches of science)
grammar(noun) the science of the correct use of language. n grammarian .
grammatical(adjective) correct in grammar (a grammatical sentence).
Grammatologystudy of systems of writing (see list of branches of science)
granary(noun) a storehouse for grain.
grand(adjective) 1 noble, magnificent, splendid (a very grand processiontoo grand to go out for a drink with his old colleagues). 3 (inf or dial) pleasant (a grand day). 4 wonderful, highly respected (a grand old man). 5 dignified (write in a grand style).
grand piano(noun) a large piano in which the strings are horizontal.
grandeur(noun) nobility, magnificence, splendidness.
grandfather(noun) the father of one’s father or mother. f grandmother . Also grandchild, granddaughter, grandparent, grandson.
grandiose(adjective) meant to be splendid, intended to be impressive (he has grandiose ideas but no money to carry them out).
grandiosityCollective noun for operas (A grandiosity of operas) (see list of collective nouns)
grandstand(noun) rows of seats built on a rising slope to allow people a good view of a sports contest. vb to show off to the audience or onlookers.
granite(noun) a hard rock (houses built of granite).
granny , grandma(noun) (inf) a grandmother (a little girl asking for her granny).
grant(verb) 1 to give, to agree to, to allow (grant him permission to go). 2 (fml) to admit as true (I grant that he is hardworking). n something allowed or given, especially money given for a certain purpose (they were delighted to receive a grant to build a new wing for the university library).
granular(adjective) 1 of or like grains (granular substances like salt). 2 rough to the touch, rough in appearance (rather granular skin).
granulate(verb) to break into grains or small pieces. adj granulated (granulated sugar).
granule(noun) a small grain (granules of sugar).
grape(noun) the fruit of the vine (wine made from grapes).
grapefruit(noun) a large yellowish sharp-tasting citrus fruit (I like to have grapefruit for breakfast).
graph(noun) a diagram in which different numbers, quantities, etc, are shown by dots which are then joined up by lines so that they can be easily compared (a graph showing the annual variations in sales).
Graphemicsstudy of systems of representing speech in writing (see list of branches of science)
graphic(adjective) 1 so well told that the events, etc, can be seen in the mind’s eye (a graphic description of what was going on in the war zone). 2 drawn, concerned with drawing, painting, etc (the graphic arts). graphics npl information in the form of illustrations or diagrams (the graphics in the book make the text easier to understand).
graphite(noun) a soft black form of carbon used in pencils.
Graphologystudy of handwriting (see list of branches of science)
Graphophobia fear of writing or handwriting (see list of phobias)
grapple(verb) 1 to fight hand to hand, to take hold of and struggle with (grapple with the burglar who had entered his house). 2 to struggle with (grappling with math for the exam).
grasp(verb) 1 to take firm hold of (grasp his hand in farewell). 2 to understand (unable to grasp the urgency of the situation). n 1 firm hold (shake his hand in a grasp). 2 reach (the job was within his grasp). 3 understanding (a good grasp of the subject).
grasping(adjective) mean, always wanting more money (grasping moneylenders/grasping merchants overcharging customers).
grass(noun) the common plant covering of the ground, usually green. adj grassy.
grasshopper(noun) a small jumping insect.
grate1(noun) a metal frame in a fireplace for holding the fire (a fire burning steadily in the grate).
grate2(verb) 1 to break down by rubbing on something rough (grate cheese). 2 to make a harsh sound, as of metal rubbing on metal (chalk grating on a blackboard). 3 to annoy, to irritate (a voice that really grates on people).
grateful(adjective) thankful (grateful for your helpgrate-fu-lee/.
grater(noun) an instrument with a rough surface for breaking down to crumbs or powder (a cheese grater).
gratification(noun) pleasure, satisfaction (a sense of gratification at finishing the job on time).
gratify(verb) 1 to please, to delight (we were gratified to hear that they liked our present). 2 to satisfy (able to gratify her desire to go to the opera).
grating(noun) a framework of metal bars.
gratitude(noun) thankfulness (express his gratitude for their help/be filled with gratitude for her kindness).
gratitudeCollective noun for juniors (A gratitude of juniors) (see list of collective nouns)
gratuitous(adjective) 1 unasked-for, unwanted (gratuitous advice). 2 unnecessary, unjustified (scenes of gratuitous violence in the movie).
grave1(noun) the hole dug in the earth for a dead body.
grave2(adjective) serious, important (a matter of grave importance/wear a grave expression).
gravel(noun) 1 small stones or pebbles (throw gravel at the bedroom window to wake her). 2 a mixture of small stones and sand used to make the surface of roads and paths (the child fell on the gravel).
gravestone(noun) a memorial stone placed over a grave.
graveyard(noun) a piece of land set aside for graves.
gravitate(verb) 1 to move toward the center. 2 to move in a certain direction as if drawn there by some force (children gravitating toward the toy store). n gravitation .
gravity(noun) 1 seriousness, importance (understand the gravity of the situation). 2 (fml) weight. 3 the force drawing bodies toward the center of a larger body, e.g. the earth (the force of gravity).
gravy(noun) the juice got from meat when it is being cooked, often thickened and served as a sauce with the meat.
gray(adjective), also grey (Br) 1 black mixed with white in color (a gray dress). 2 of the color of hair whitened by age (gray hair). Also n.
GrayCollective noun for anatomists (A Gray of anatomists) (see list of collective nouns)
graze1(verb) 1 to touch or rub against lightly in passing (the car grazed the garage door). 2 to scrape along the surface. n 1 a passing touch. 2 a scraping of the skin (bandage the graze on the child’s knee).
graze2(verb) to eat growing grass, to feed on grass (cows grazing in the field).
grazing(noun) land with grass suitable for feeding cattle (hire out the grazing to a neighboring farmer).
grease(noun) 1 fat in a soft state (the grease from cooking bacon). 2 fatty or oily matter (use grease on his hair/lubricate the hinges with grease). vb to smear with grease. adj greasy.
great(adjective) 1 large in amount, number, or size (a great crowd). 2 important (a great paintinggrate-leegrate-ness/.
great dealCollective noun for used car salesmen (A great deal of used car salesmen) (see list of collective nouns)
great-grandfather(noun) the father of one of one’s grandparents. f great-grandmother . Also great-grandchild, great-grandparent, etc.
greed(noun) 1 the desire to have more and more for oneself (the greed of the miser as he got more and more money). 2 love of eating (eat not from hunger but from greed).
greedCollective noun for attorneys (A greed of attorneys) (see list of collective nouns)
greedy(adjective) always wanting more than one has (greedy misergree-di-leegree-dee-ness/.
green(adjective) 1 the color of grass (a green dress). 2 fresh, not ripe (green bananas). 3 inexperienced (young workers so green that they believed his jokes). 4 concerned with the protection and conservation of the environment (the politicians were discussing green issues). n 1 green color (she always wears green). 2 a piece of ground covered with grass (the village green). 3 a person who is concerned with the protection and conservation of the environment (the greens). n greenness . npl greens green vegetables (e.g. cabbage) (children told to eat their greens).
greenery(noun) green plants, foliage (arrange the flowers with some greenery).
greenhouse(noun) a glasshouse for growing plants (grow tomatoes in a greenhouse).
greenhouse effect(noun) an increase in the earth’s atmosphere of the amount of carbon dioxide and other gases that trap the heat of the sun and prevent it from escaping into space, thought to be a major cause of global warming.
greet(verb) 1 to welcome (greet the guests at the front door). 2 to speak or send good wishes to someone (greeted his neighbors in the street). 3 to receive (greet the news with relief/the statement was greeted with disbelief).
greeting(noun) 1 welcome (a few words of greeting to the guests). 2 (often pl) good wishes (send greetings to her parents).
gregarious(adjective) 1 fond of company (too gregarious to live alone). 2 (fml) living in flocks or herds (gregarious animals).
grenade(noun) a small bomb thrown by hand.
grew pt of grow.
greyhound(noun) a lean fast-running dog, used in dog-racing.
grid(noun) 1 a framework of metal bars (a grid to keep cattle from leaving the field). 2 a gridiron. 3 a large number of electric wires, rail lines, roads, etc, crossing and going in different directions. 4 the division of a map into squares to make map-reading easier.
gridCollective noun for electricians (A grid of electricians) (see list of collective nouns)
griddle(noun) a flat iron plate for baking cakes, etc, on a fire or the top of a stove.
gridiron(noun) 1 a framework of iron bars used for cooking meat over a fire (broil steaks over a gridiron). 2 a field for American football.
grief(noun) great sorrow (their grief at their friend’s death). come to grief to fail, to suffer a misfortune (they’ll come to grief if they oppose his scheme).
grievance(noun) a cause of complaint (workers giving management a list of grievances).
grieve(verb) 1 to sorrow, to mourn (widows grieving for their dead husbands). 2 (fml) to cause sorrow (it grieved him to leave her).
grievous(adjective) (fml) 1 causing pain or sorrow (grievous loss). 2 severe, serious (the man was arrested on a charge of grievous bodily harm).
grill(noun) 1 a framework of metal bars used in cooking that directs heat downward for cooking meat, etc (cook the hamburgers on the grill). 2 food cooked on a grill (a mixed grill). 3 an informal restaurant or diner. 4 a grille. vb 1 to cook on a grill (grill the steak). 2 (inf) to question intensively (grilled by the police).
grille(noun) a framework of metal bars fitted into a counter or door, or outside a window (bank clerks protected by a grille).
grim(adjective) 1 angry-looking, unsmiling (looked grim when he heard the news). 2 unpleasant, depressing (the grim prospect of unemployment). 3 severe, harsh (a grim struggle for survival). 4 stubborn, determined (with grim determination). n grimness .
grimace(verb) to twist the face to show one’s feelings (grimacing with disgust at the sight). Also n.
grime(noun) dirt, filth (pollution has caused most of the grime on the city buildings). adj grimy .
grin(verb) (grinned , grinning ) to smile widely in pleasure. Also n.
grind(verb) (pt, pp ground ) 1 to rub or crush to powder or small pieces (grind the coffee/ground beef). 2 to sharpen by rubbing (grind the knives). 3 to press together noisily (grind his teeth). 4 (inf) to work hard (grind away at her studies). n hard and uninteresting work.
grinder(noun) a person or thing that grinds (a coffee grinder).
grip(verb) (gripped , gripping ) 1 to take a firm hold of, to hold very tightly (a child gripping his mother’s hand). 2 to seize the attention of (an audience gripped by the play). n a firm or tight hold (keeping a tight grip on his wallet).
gripCollective noun for porters (A grip of porters) (see list of collective nouns)
gripe(verb) 1 (fml) to cause a sharp pain in the stomach. 2 (inf) to complain (always griping about something). n 1 a pain in the stomach. 2 (inf) a complaint.
grisly(adjective) dreadful, frightening (the grisly sight of the headless corpse).
gristle(noun) a tough elastic substance surrounding the joints of the bones (unable to eat the meat that was full of gristle). adj gristly .
grit(noun) 1 grains of sand or dust (spread grit on icy roads). 2 courage, determination (it took grit to face up to the bullies). vb (gritted , gritting ) 1 to press (the teeth) tightly together. 2 to spread grit on (roads). adj gritty .
grits(noun, plural) boiled grain eaten as a side dish.
grizzly(adjective) streaked with gray; somewhat gray.
groan(verb) to utter a low, deep sound expressing pain or anxiety (victims groaning with pain after the accident/groaned in despair). Also n.
groanCollective noun for puns (A groan of puns) (see list of collective nouns)
grocer(noun) a person who sells dry and tinned foods, tea, sugar, household supplies, etc (prefer the grocer’s store to the supermarket).
grog(noun) (old) a mixture of a strong alcoholic drink and cold water.
groggy(adjective) not steady on the feet, weak (feeling groggy after the surgical procedure).
groin(noun) the part of the body where the legs join the trunk (strain a muscle in the groin).
Gromaticsstudy of surveying (see list of branches of science)
groom(noun) 1 a person who cares for horses (the grooms at the racing stables). 2 also short for bridegroom, a man who is being married (the bride and groom).
groomsman(noun) a male friend or relative who accompanies the bridegroom at a wedding.
groove(noun) a long narrow hollow, such as that made by a tool in wood (the groove in a record/the groove for a sliding door). vb to make a groove in.
grope(verb) to feel with one’s hands for something unseen (groping for the light switch).
gross(adjective) 1 fat and overfed (feel gross beside the slender models). 2 coarse, vulgar, impolite (gross behaviorgross profit). n 1 twelve dozen. 2 the whole. adv grossly .
grossCollective noun for Germans (A gross of Germans) (see list of collective nouns)
grossness(noun) rudeness, vulgarity (the grossness of his behavior).
grotesque(adjective) 1 strangely shaped, distorted, fantastic (grotesque masks). 2 ridiculously exaggerated, unreasonable, absurd, foolish (a grotesque distortion of the truth/look grotesque in clothes too young for them).
grotto(noun) (pl grottoes ) a cave, often an artificial one in a park or store (Santa’s grotto).
ground1(noun) 1 the surface of the earth, land (dead birds falling to the groundgroundz/ 1 the tiny pieces of matter that sink to the bottom of a liquid (coffee grounds). 2 the land surrounding a large house, castle, etc (the large house had extensive grounds).
ground2(past tense) pp of grind.
grounding(noun) knowledge of the elementary part of a subject (receive a good grounding in English grammar).
groundless(adjective) without a reason (fears that proved groundless).
groundskeeper(noun) the person in charge of maintaining a sports field.
groundwork(noun) work that must be done well in the beginning if later work on the subject or task is to succeed (a book that required a great deal of groundwork in the form of research/lay the groundwork for talks between the heads of state).
group(noun) 1 a number of persons or things taken together (a group of languagesor sing together (a pop group). vb to put or go into a group (group the books according to subject/group the children in the class according to ability).
grouse1(noun) (pl grouse) a small fowl hunted on the moors as game.
grouse2(verb) (inf) to grumble, to complain (grousing about the high prices). Also n.
grove(noun) (fml) a small wood.
grovel(verb) 1 to lie face downward in humility or fear (grovel before the emperor). 2 to humble oneself, to behave with humility (grovel to her parents for a loan).
grow(verb) (pt grew , pp grown ) 1 to become bigger (children growing). 2 (of plants) to have life (plants that can grow in any soil). 3 to become (grow old). 4 to plant and rear (grow potatoes in the back garden). n growth .
growl(verb) to utter a low harsh sound, as a dog when angry (growling at the children who were disturbing him). Also n.
grown-up(noun) a fully grown person (children wishing to have dinner with the grown-ups).
growthsee grow.
grub(verb) (grubbed , grubbing ) 1 to dig, to root out (grub out all the weeds). 2 to search for by digging (pigs grubbing around for food). 3 (inf) to search around for (reporters grubbing around for information). n 1 the form of an insect when it comes out of the egg. 2 (inf) food.
grubby(adjective) dirty (children grubby after a day’s play/wash his grubby clothes).
grudge(verb) 1 to be unwilling to give (grudging the money spent on traveling to work). 2 to be displeased by another’s success, to envy (grudge the actor his part in the play). n a deep feeling of ill-will, dislike, resentment, etc (bore a grudge against his brother for marrying his girlfriend).
gruel(noun) (old) a light food made by boiling meal in water.
grueling(adjective), also gruelling (Br) very difficult and tiring (a grueling climb up the mountain).
gruesome(adjective) horrible, very unpleasant (a gruesome murder/the gruesome sight of rotting meat).
gruff(adjective) 1 deep and rough (a gruff voice). 2 rough, angry-sounding (a gruff reply).
grumble(verb) to complain, to express discontent (grumbling about being overworked). Also n. n grumbler .
grumbleCollective noun for pugs (A grumble of pugs) (see list of collective nouns)
grumpy(adjective) (inf) cross, ill-tempered (feeling grumpy first thing in the morning).
grunt(verb) to make a noise like a pig (he grunted that he was too busy to talk). Also n.
guarantee(noun) 1 a promise to pay money on behalf of another person if that person fails to pay money he or she has promised to pay. 2 a person who undertakes to see that another keeps his or her promise, especially to repay money; a guarantor. 3 a promise, usually in the form of a written statement, that if an article bought is unsatisfactory, it will be repaired or replaced (a manufacturer’s guarantee). 4 a thing that makes something likely or certain (there’s no guarantee that we will have enough money). vb 1 to promise (guaranteed that he’d be there). 2 to undertake to see that a promise is kept (guaranteeing that the money will be repaid).
guarantor(noun) one who hands over something as a guarantee and loses it if the promise is not kept.
guard(verb) 1 to watch over, to protect (guard the children). 2 to defend against attack (guard the city from enemy attack). n 1 something that protects (a fire guard/guards to protect players’ shins). 2 a person, such as a soldier or prison officer, who watches over a person or place to prevent escape, attack, etc. 3 a group of persons whose duty it is to watch over and defend something or someone (the changing of the guard at Buckingham Palace). 4 the official in charge of a train. 5 a position in which one can defend or protect oneself, a state of watchfulness (be on his guard walking through the unlit streets).
guarded(adjective) careful, cautious (give a guarded reply).
guardian(noun) 1 a person who has the legal duty to take care of a child (when her parents were killed her uncle was appointed her guardian). 2 (fml) a keeper (the guardian of the castle).
guava(noun) a tropical tree or its fruit.
guerrilla, guerilla(noun) a member of an unofficial small military group that makes sudden, unexpected attacks (the president and his staff were ambushed by guerrillas in the mountains/guerrilla warfare).
guess(verb) 1 to put forward an opinion or solution without knowing the facts (I would guess that it is a distance of 20 miles/try to guess the weight of the cake). 2 (inf) to suppose, to consider likely (I guess you might know him). n an opinion or judgment that may be wrong as it is formed on insufficient knowledge (I think he’s about 60 but it’s just a guess).
guesswork(noun) a number of connected guesses (reach the right answer by guesswork).
guest(noun) 1 a visitor to a house (be rude to her mother’s guests/have guests for Christmas). 2 a person staying in a hotel (the small hotel has room for 20 guests).
guffaw(verb) to laugh loudly or rudely (guffawed at his vulgar jokes). Also n.
guidance(noun) help and advice (career guidance).
guide(verb) 1 to lead to the place desired (guiding guests to their seats). 2 to show the way (guide them up the mountain). 3 to direct, to influence (be guided by one’s common sense). n 1 a person who shows the way (a mountain guide). 2 an adviser, a person who directs or influences one’s behavior (his father was also his guide and friend). 3 a guidebook (a guide to New York). 4 a person who leads people around a place, pointing out things of interest (a guide taking tourists around the castle). 5 a thing that helps one to form an opinion or make a calculation (sales as a guide to the firm’s financial situation).
guide dog(noun) a dog trained to lead a blind person.
guidebook(noun) a book describing a place and giving information about it.
guild(noun) a group of people who meet for a particular purpose (formerly, the members of one trade) (the American Newspaper Guild).
guilder(noun) formerly the currency unit of the Netherlands, until the introduction of the euro in 2002.
guile(noun) (fml) deceit, trickery, cunning skill (used guile to gain access to the old lady’s house). adj guileful , guileless .
guillotine(noun) 1 a machine formerly used in France for beheading people. 2 a machine for cutting paper.
guilt(noun) 1 the fact of having done wrong, the fact of having committed a crime (the police established his guilt). 2 blame or responsibility for wrongdoing (where the guilt lies). 3 a sense of shame, uneasiness, etc, caused by the knowledge of having done wrong (unable to sleep because of feelings of guiltgilt-less/.
guilty(adjective) 1 having done wrong, having broken a law (found guilty of the crime). 2 responsible for behavior that is morally wrong or socially unacceptable (a local authority guilty of spending too much money on hospitality). 3 feeling or showing a sense of guilt or shame (feel guilty about keeping them waiting).
guinea fowl(noun) a large spotted edible bird.
guinea pig(noun) 1 a small tailless rodent, often kept as a pet. 2 a person made use of for the purpose of an experiment (guinea pigs for their mother’s cookery experiments).
guise(noun) 1 dress. 2 appearance (under the guise of friendship).
guitar(noun) a six-stringed musical instrument.
gulch(noun) a rocky valley.
gulf(noun) 1 an inlet of the sea, a long bay. 2 a deep hollow. 3 an area of serious difference or separation (a gulf between brother and sister).
gull1(noun) a long-winged sea bird.
gull2(verb) (old) to cheat, to deceive (gulled into lending her money). n one who has been cheated, one easily deceived.
gullet(noun) the food passage from the mouth to the stomach; the throat (she had a piece of food stuck in her gullet).
gullible(adjective) easily deceived (so gullible that she believed him when he pretended to be Italian).
gully(noun) a deep channel worn by running water.
gulp(verb) 1 to eat quickly, to swallow in large mouthfuls (gulped his food down and rushed out). 2 to make a swallowing movement (gulped with fear as he saw the policeman). Also n.
gum tree(noun) a tree from which gum is obtained.
gum1(noun) the flesh in which the teeth are set.
gum2(noun) 1 the sticky juice of trees. 2 a liquid used for sticking things together (children using gum to stick pieces of colored paper on cardboard). vb (gummed, gumming) to stick with gum (gum the cuttings into a scrapbook).
gumboil(noun) a painful swelling on the gum.
gumboot(noun) a rubber boot (she insisted on the children wearing gumboots to walk in the muddy fields).
gummy(adjective) sticky.
gumption(noun) common sense; good sense (not have the gumption to think for himself).
gun(noun) any weapon that fires bullets or shells by means of explosive. vb (gunned , gunning ) to shoot or hunt with a gun.
gunboat(noun) a small warship.
gundog(noun) a dog trained to accompany hunters and to fetch game that has been shot.
gunfire(noun) the sound of guns being fired.
gunmetal(noun) 1 a mixture of copper and tin. 2 a dull-gray color (he bought a car the color of gunmetal).
gunner(noun) a man trained to fire large guns.
gunpowder(noun) a type of explosive.
gunrunning(noun) taking guns into a country against its laws (terrorists involved in gunrunning).
gunshot(noun) 1 the firing of a gun (heard gunshot the night his neighbor was murdered). 2 the distance a gun can fire (within gunshot).
gunsmith(noun) a person who makes or repairs guns.
gurgle(verb) 1 to flow with a bubbling sound (water gurgling from the taps). 2 to make a noise resembling this (babies gurgling in their prams). Also n.
guru(noun) a spiritual leader or guide.
gush(noun) a sudden or strong flow (a gush of water from the fauceta gush of enthusiasm). vb 1 to flow out strongly (water gushing from the faucets/blood gushing from the wound). 2 to talk as if one felt something very deeply; to speak insincerely (gushing about how grateful she was).
gushCollective noun for sycophants (A gush of sycophants) (see list of collective nouns)
gusset(noun) a piece of cloth put into a garment to strengthen part of it.
gust(noun) a sudden violent rush of wind (papers blown away by a gust of wind).
gusto(noun) keen enjoyment, eagerness (eat the meal with gusto/play the piano with gusto).
gusty(adjective) 1 windy (a gusty day). 2 in short violent bursts (a gusty wind).
gut(noun) 1 a tube in the body that takes the waste matter from the stomach. 2 a strong cord used for violin strings, fishing lines, etc. vb (gutted , gutting ) 1 to take out the inner parts (gut the fish). 2 to remove or destroy all except the walls of a building (fire gutted the house). npl (inf) 1 the bowels, intestines (a bad pain in the guts). 2 bravery, courage (to have the guts to admit the truth).
gutter(noun) 1 a passage at the edge of a roof or at the side of the road to carry away water (blocked gutters). 2 the lowest, poorest level of society (she was born in the gutter but became famous). vb to run down in drops, as wax on a candle.
guttural(adjective) 1 having to do with the throat. 2 made or seeming to be made in the throat, harsh (a guttural accent).
guy1(noun) a rope to steady anything (e.g. a tent).
guy2(noun) 1 a man or boy (guys and girls). 2 (inf) a person (come on, you guys!).
guzzle(verb) (inf) to eat or drink greedily (guzzling all the ice cream).
gym(noun) a gymnasium.
gymkhana(noun) a sports meeting for races, horse racing, horse jumping, etc (children riding ponies at the local gymkhana).
gymnasium(noun) (pl gymnasia or gymnasiums ) a room or hall with equipment for physical exercise (the school gymnasium).
gymnast(noun) a person who is skilled in gymnastics. adj gymnastic .
gymnastics(noun, plural) exercises to develop the muscles of the body.
Gymnophobiafear of nudity (see list of phobias)
Gynaecologystudy of women's physiology (see list of branches of science)
Gynephobiafear of women (see list of phobias)
Gynophobia fear of women (see list of phobias)
gypsy(noun) a member of a traveling people (a gypsy woman telling fortunes).
gyrate(verb) 1 to move in circles (dancers gyrating to the music). 2 to spin round (a spinning top gyrating). n gyration .
gyroscope(noun) an instrument that is sometimes used to keep ships, aircraft, etc, steady.
Gyrostaticsstudy of rotating bodies (see list of branches of science)
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