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J (volume 10)
J, jthe tenth letter of the alphabet.
jab(jabbed , jabbing ) to prod or poke suddenly (she jabbed him in the arm as she spoke). n 1 a sudden prod or poke. 2 (Brit inf) an injection (get a jab against measles).
jabberto chatter; to speak quickly and indistinctly (unable to understand what the excited children were jabbering about).
jack1 a tool for lifting heavy weights (a car jack). 2 the small white ball aimed at in the game of bowls. 3 the knave in cards. 4 a flag. vb to raise with a jack (jack the car up). every man jack (informal) every single one (every man jack of us will have to help).
jackala dog-like wild animal.
jackass1 a male donkey. 2 (informal) a fool.
jacket1 a short coat (a man’s woolen jacket). 2 a loose paper cover for a book (the book has a striking design on its jacket).
jack-of-all-tradessomeone who is able to do any kind of job (he is not only a joiner—he is a jack-of-all-trades).
Jacuzzi™a kind of whirlpool bath with a system of underwater jets which massage the body (some rooms in the hotel have a Jacuzzi).
jadea green precious stone.
jadedtired, bored, uninterested (after all the Christmas parties he feels a bit jaded and can’t be bothered going out).
jaggedhaving rough edges or sharp points (jagged rocks).
jaguaran animal like the leopard, found in South America.
jaila prison (sentenced and sent to jail).
jailera prison guard (locked up at night by jailers).
jamCollective noun for tarts (A jam of tarts) (see list of collective nouns)
jam1fruit boiled with sugar to preserve it; jelly; preserve (spread raspberry jam on the bread).
jam2(jammed , jamming ) 1 to squeeze in, to fix so tightly that movement is impossible, to wedge in (he jammed his foot in the doorway). 2 to crowd full (the hall was jammed with protesters). 3 to prevent the receiving of radio messages by broadcasting sounds on the same wavelength. 4 to take part in an unplanned music making session (I jammed with the saxophonists/we were jamming). n 1 a pile-up of traffic (bad traffic jams in the town during rush-hour). 2 an unplanned music-making session (the jazz musicians in the club had a jam).
janglea harsh ringing noise (hear the jangle of the shop doorbell). vb 1 to make or cause to make a jangle. 2 (informal) to irritate (the rush to get a seat on the train jangled my nerves).
jangleCollective noun for hangers (A jangle of hangers) (see list of collective nouns)
janitor1 a doorkeeper. 2 one who takes care of a building.
Januarythe first month of the year.
Japanophobiafear of Japanese (see list of phobias)
jara glass or earthenware vessel with a wide mouth (a jar of jam).
jargonwords special to a group or profession (the jargon of the advertising business).
jasmine , jessaminea climbing bush with sweet-smelling flowers.
jaspera precious stone, yellow, red or brown in color.
jaundicean illness marked by yellowness of the eyes and skin.
jaundiced1 suffering from jaundice. 2 full of envy, disappointment, etc; thinking of everything as bad or unlucky (have a jaundiced view of life).
jaunta short pleasure trip (go on a jaunt to the seaside). vb to go from place to place.
jaunty1 cheerful-looking, confident (wear his hat at a jaunty angle). 2 pleased with oneself (in a jaunty mood).
javelina light throwing spear.
jawone of the bones in the mouth that hold the teeth (get a broken jaw in a fight).
jaya bird of the crow family with brightly colored feathers.
jaywalkto walk across the street carelessly or without obeying the rules of the road. n jaywalker
jazzsyncopated music and dancing of African-American origin.
jealous1 disliking rivals in love, having feelings of dislike for any possible rivals (a jealous husband je-lu-see/.
jeana cotton cloth. npl close-fitting trousers often made of denim.
Jeep™a light truck, military or otherwise, for going over rough ground.
jeerto laugh or shout at disrespectfully, to mock, (jeering at the football player who was playing badly). n insulting words.
Jehovahfrom the Old Testament of the bible, a name for God.
Jell-O™a brand name for a number of gelatin desserts whose popularity has led to the name being used as a generic term for gelatin dessert in the US and Canada. (serve orange Jell-O to the children).
jelly1 a material that is in a state between solid and liquid. 2 a type of food consisting of fruit cooked with sugar (enjoy a peanut butter and jelly sandwich). 3 (British spelling) a sweet food made by boiling the juice of fruit with sugar and mixing with gelatin to make it set (serve ice cream and jelly to the children).
jellyfisha jelly-like sea creature often with stinging tentacles.
jeopardizealso jeopardise (British spelling) to put in danger, to risk (jeopardizing the rescue operation by his careless action).
jerk1 to give a sudden pull or push (jerk the cord that operates the light). 2 to move suddenly and quickly (she jerked back as the car came toward her). n a sudden, quick movement (after a series of jerks the car came to a halt).
jerkina close-fitting jacket or short coat.
jerky1moving by jerks (a jerky way of walking).
jerky2dried, preserved meat that can be kept for a long time even when not in a refrigerator.
jersey1 a fine wool (a dress of jersey). 2 (British spelling) see sweater.
jesta joke, something done or said in fun (make a jest about their being newly married/he said it in jest). vb to joke.
jester(old) one paid to make jokes, as in a king’s or nobleman’s household.
Jesuita priest or brother in the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order.
jet lagtiredness which results from traveling by plane across several time zones.
jet planean airplane that is jet-propelled, i.e. driven forward by the force of jets of gas forced out to the rear.
jet1a hard black substance, often used for ornamental purposes (a necklace made of jet).
jet21 a stream of liquid or gas forced through a narrow opening. 2 a spout through which a narrow stream of liquid or gas can be forced (the water jet is blocked). 3 a jet plane.
jetsamgoods thrown overboard to make a ship lighter.
jettison1 to throw (goods, etc) overboard. 2 to get rid of (he decided to jettison the idea).
jetty1 a pier. 2 a wall built to protect a harbor from high seas.
jewel1 a precious stone (diamonds, emeralds and other jewels). 2 something valued highly (the jewel of his art collection).
jeweler (British: jeweller)someone who buys and sells jewels.
jewelryalso jewellery (Brit), jewels, personal ornaments, as rings, necklaces, etc.
jib1 a triangular sail raised in front of a ship’s foremast. 2 the arm of a crane. vb to pull a sail round to the other side. to like the cut of someone’s jib to like someone.
jibesee gibe.
jiffy(informal) a moment, an instant (she said that she would be down in a jiffy).
jiga lively dance tune. vb (jigged , jigging ) 1 to dance a jig. 2 to move up and down quickly in a jerky way (children jigging with excitement).
jigsawa picture that has been cut into different shapes and the puzzle is to try to fit them together again (the jigsaw was of a battle scene).
jihada holy war waged by Muslims against non-believers; a crusade for or against a cause. Also jehad.
jiltto leave someone after promising to love or marry him or her (jilted her at the altar).
jinglea light ringing noise made by metal against metal, as by small bells or coins (the jingle of coins in his pocket). vb to ring lightly, to clink.
jitters(informal) great nervousness.
jittery(informal) nervous (in a jittery mood/get jittery at the sight of a policeman).
jive1 a type of jazz music. 2 the way of dancing to it. Also vb.
job1 a piece of work (make a good job of mending the table). 2 someone’s employment (a job in an office). 3 (informal) a crime (serving three years in jail for the job he did).
jockeya rider in horse races. vb to persuade or manipulate a person gradually and skillfully into doing something he or she is unwilling to do (succeeded in jockeying him into joining them).
jocular1 intended to be humorous (a few jocular remarks). 2 fond of joking (a jocular fellow).
jodhpursriding breeches reaching to the ankle.
jog(jogged , jogging ) 1 to nudge, to prod (he jogged me and I spilled the coffee/jog someone’s memory). 2 to walk or run at a slow, steady pace (jog round the park for exercise). n 1 a nudge, a slight shake. 2 a slow walk or trot.
join1 to put or fasten together (join the two pieces of string). 2 to take part in with others (join the search for the missing child). 3 to become a member of (join the golf club). n a place where things join (unable to see the join in the wallpaper). join battle to begin fighting (the enemies joined battle at dawn).
joinera carpenter, a worker in wood, who makes furniture, etc.
joint1 a place at which two things meet or are fastened together (seal the joints in the pipe). 2 a place where two things are joined, but left the power of moving (as at, e.g. the elbow, a hinge) (old people suffering from stiff joints). 3 a large piece of meat containing a bone (roast a joint of beef). adj 1 shared between two or among all (a joint bank account). 2 done by several together (a joint achievement). Also vb.
jointCollective noun for orthopaedists (A joint of orthopaedists) (see list of collective nouns)
jointCollective noun for osteopaths (A joint of osteopaths) (see list of collective nouns)
jointedhaving joints.
jointlytogether (write the book jointly).
joistone of the beams of wood supporting the floor or ceiling.
jojobaan evergreen shrub from which oil is extracted for use in creams and shampoos.
jokesomething said or done to cause laughter (a speech full of jokes that were not funny). Also vb.
jollificationmerrymaking and feasting (much jollification when they won the football competition).
jollitygaiety, cheerfulness.
jollymerry, cheerful (in a jolly mood/jolly, amusing people).
Jolly Rogerthe black pirate flag with the skull and crossbones.
jolt1 to give a sudden jerk to (he jolted my arm as he passed). 2 to move along jerkily (a bus jolting along country lanes). n 1 a sudden jerk (the car gave a jolt and stopped suddenly). 2 a shock (get a jolt when he failed the exam).
jonquila small daffodil.
jostleto knock or push against (people jostling to get into the cinema).
jota small amount (have not a jot of sympathy). vb (jotted , jotting ) to write down in short form (jot down his address).
jottera notebook or exercise book.
jottinga short note.
journal1 (usually in titles) a daily newspaper. 2 a weekly or monthly magazine. 3 a record of the events of every day (she decided to keep a journal of her travels).
journalismthe work of preparing or writing for newspapers and magazines (a career in journalism).
journalistsomeone whose job is journalism.
journalistichaving to do with journalism (a journalistic career).
journeya distance traveled, especially over land (long journeys by train and bus). vb (fml or old) to travel (journeyed for three days).
journeymana person who has served an apprenticeship to learn a craft or a trade and is now employed by another.
joust(old) a contest between two armed knights on horseback at a tournament. Also vb.
jovialmerry, joyful, cheerful (a jovial old man jo-vee-a-li-tee/.
jowlthe jaw, the lower part of the cheek (a face with heavy jowls). cheek by jowl very close together (a meeting to promote peace where terrorists stood cheek by jowl with churchmen).
joy1 delight, gladness (bring joy to their lives). 2 a cause of great happiness (their child was a great joy to them).
joy ride(informal) a drive for pleasure in a car (often one that does not belong to the driver) (teenagers stealing cars for joy rides). vb joy-ride.
joyful , joyousfull of joy (a joyful occasion).
joystick1 the pilot’s lever to control an airplane. 2 a control lever on a computer.
jubilantrejoicing greatly, triumphant, very glad (the fans were jubilant after their team won the match).
jubilationtriumphant joy.
jubilee1 a special anniversary of an event (the firm celebrated its golden jubilee). 2 a celebration of this. golden jubilee a 50th anniversary. silver jubilee a 25th anniversary. diamond jubilee a 60th anniversary.
Judaismthe religion of the Jews.
Judeophobiafear of Jews (see list of phobias)
judge1 someone who presides in a court of law giving advice on matters of law and deciding on the punishment for guilty persons (the judge sentenced him to two years in prison). 2 someone asked to settle a disagreement (appointed judge in their dispute). 3 someone able to distinguish what is good from what is bad (a good judge of wine). vb 1 to act as judge in a court of law. 2 to decide, to give an opinion on (judging a school by its exam results). 3 to decide which is the best in a competition (judge a singing competition). 4 (formal) to criticize or blame someone (quick to judge others).
judgment or judgement1 act or power of judging (his judgment is not to be trusted). 2 the decision given at the end of a law case. 3 good sense (a business decision showing poor judgment). 4 an opinion (in my judgment he is a good player). Judgment the Last Judgment of the Old Testament.
judicatureall the judges or law courts of a country.
judicialhaving to do with a judge or court of law (our judicial system).
judiciaryhaving to do with a court of law. n judges as a body.
judiciouswise, showing good sense (a judicious decision/an action that was far from being judicious).
judoa Japanese system of unarmed combat adapted as a competitive sport from jujitsu.
jug1 a deep vessel for holding liquids, with a handle; a pitcher (a jug of milk). 2 a large vessel with a narrow mouth. .
juggernaut1 a large destructive force (the juggernaut of bureaucracy). 2 a very large lorry (juggernauts rumbling through country villages from the port).
juggle1 to keep on throwing things up, catching them and throwing them up again with great quickness of hand (an entertainer juggling plates). 2 to change the arrangement of something in order to get a satisfactory result or to deceive (the accountant juggled the company’s end-of-year figures). n juggler
jugularhaving to do with the neck or throat.
jugular veinthe large vein at the side of the neck.
juicethe liquid of a fruit or plant (orange juice). adj juicy
jujitsua form of self-defense first used in Japan.
jujube(old) a jelly-like sweet.
jukeboxa machine in a café, pub, etc, that automatically plays a selected record or compact disc when a coin is inserted.
julepshort for mint julep, a tall glass of bourbon or brandy and sugar over crushed ice, garnished with mint.
Julythe seventh month of the year.
jumbleto mix in an untidy heap (a cupboard with shoes and clothes all jumbled up). n a muddle (a jumble of books and papers).
jumbosomething very large of its kind. adj very large (a jumbo jet).
jump1 to push off the ground with the feet so that the whole body moves through the air (the dog jumped over the wall). 2 to make a sudden quick movement or start, as when surprised (he jumped when the door banged). n 1 a leap (a parachute jump). 2 a sudden, quick movement (give a jump in his sleep). 3 an obstacle to be jumped over (the jumps in a horse race). n jumper jump at to accept willingly (jump at the chance of working abroad). jump to conclusions to take things as true without waiting for them to be proved so.
jumpersee sweater.
jumpy(informal) nervous, anxious (feel jumpy when she was alone in the house). n jumpiness
junction1 (formal) a joining point. 2 a station where several railway lines meet.
juncturemoment, point, stage (at this juncture he decided to leave).
Junethe sixth month of the year.
jungleland especially in the tropics, covered with trees and matted undergrowth.
junior1 younger (the junior children). 2 lower in rank (junior members of staff). Also n.
juniperan evergreen shrub.
junk foodfood which is low in nutritional value, often eaten as snacks (she worried because her children were eating too much junk food instead of well-balanced meals).
junk mailmail that you receive without having asked for it, usually containing advertisements.
junk1odds and ends, old or unwanted things, rubbish (the shop is supposed to sell antiques but it’s full of junk).
junk2a Chinese sailing vessel.
junkyarda place used to store and eventually dispose of discarded objects such as old cars.
Jupiterthe fifth planet from the sun.
jurora member of a jury (the jurors in a murder trial).
jurya number of persons who have sworn to give a fair and honest opinion of the facts related in a law case (the jury reached a verdict of not guilty).
just1 right and fair (a just decision/it’s only just that she pays for her crime). 2 honest, fair, moral (a just man). 3 reasonable, based on one’s rights (a just claim). 4 deserved (he got his just reward). adv 1 exactly (that is just what he needs). 2 on the point of (just coming in the door). 3 quite (a house that is just as nice as theirs). 4 merely, only (he’s just a child). 5 barely (just enough milk for two). 6 very lately or recently (she has just left).
justice1 fairness or rightness in the treatment of other people (laws based on justice/there was no justice in her treatment of him). 2 a judge.
justice of the peace(British) a person appointed to help administer the law in a certain district.
justifiablethat may be shown right, excusable (try to make us believe that his behavior was justifiable).
justificationa reason for doing something, a defense (no justification for his bad behavior).
justifyto show that something is right, just, reasonable or excusable (unable to justify spending all that money/he was certainly justified in feeling so angry).
jut(jutted , jutting ) to stick out (balconies jutting out over the sea).
jutea fiber from the bark of certain plants, from which rope, canvas, etc, are made.
juvenile1 having to do with young people (juvenile courts). 2 typical of young people, childish (they were amused to see middle-aged people behaving in a juvenile way). n a young person (he’s only a juvenile).
juxtaposeto place side by side or close together, especially to show a contrast (juxtaposing two phrases for effect).
juxtapositiona placing near, or side by side.
GKNXT Encyclopedia
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