C (volume 3)

C, c (noun)1 the third letter of the alphabet. 2 (music) the first note of the scale of C major.
cab (noun)1 (informal) a taxi. 2 (old) a horse carriage for public hire. 3 the driver’s part of a railway engine or truck.
cabaret (noun)a form of light entertainment consisting of songs and dancing, usually performed in a nightclub or restaurant (diners watching the cabaret).
cabbage (noun)a common vegetable with edible leaves formed into a bud.
cabin (noun)1 a small, simple house, a hut (a log cabin). 2 a room on a ship for passengers to stay in. 3 the space available for passengers or crew on an aircraft. 4 the covered part of a yacht.
cabinet (noun)1 a display case. 2 a piece of furniture with drawers (a filing cabinet). 3 a case or container for a radio, television, etc. 4 (often cap) the body of official advisors to a president, governor, etc: in the US, composed of the heads of various governmental departments.
cable (noun)1 a strong rope, often of wire. 2 a chain attached to a ship’s anchor. 3 an undersea or underground telegraph or telephone line. 4 a bundle of electric wires enclosed in a pipe. 5 a message sent by cable sense 3. 6 cable television. vb to send a message by cable.
cable television (noun)a television service that is supplied using underground cables.
cablegram (noun)a more formal name for cable, sense 5.
cacao (noun)a tropical tree that bears seeds from which chocolate and cocoa are made.
cacheCollective noun for ammunition (A cache of ammunition) (see list of collective nouns)
cacheCollective noun for arms (A cache of arms) (see list of collective nouns)
cacheCollective noun for jewelery (A cache of jewelery) (see list of collective nouns)
cacheCollective noun for weapons (A cache of weapons) (see list of collective nouns)
cackle (noun)1 the shrill, broken sound of a hen or goose. 2 noisy chatter (the cackle of people gossiping). 3 loud unpleasant laughter (try to ignore the cackle coming from the other room). Also vb.
Cacogenicsstudy of racial degeneration (see list of branches of science)
Cacophobiafear of ugliness (see list of phobias)
cacophony (noun)(formal) loud, unpleasant mixture of different sounds. adj cacophonous
cactus (noun)(pl cacti) a desert plant with fleshy stems, reduced or prickly leaves, and often bright, colorful flowers.
CADabbreviation for computer-aided design, design (of products) using a computer (most of their work was done using CAD software).
cadet (noun)1 someone training in the armed forces. 2 a schoolboy at a military school. 3 (formal) a younger son.
cadgeCollective noun for peregrines (A cadge of peregrines) (see list of collective nouns)
café (noun)a coffeehouse, a small restaurant serving light meals.
cafeteria (noun)a restaurant in which a person serves him or herself from a variety of meals that are displayed on or behind a counter.
caffeine (noun)a chemical which is a stimulant and is in tea, coffee and some soft drinks.
cage (noun)a box with one or more walls consisting of bars or wire netting in which animals or birds can be kept. vb to shut in a cage or prison (cage the rabbits/cage the prisoners).
Cainophobiafear of newness or novelty (see list of phobias)
Cainotophobiafear of newness or novelty (see list of phobias)
cake (noun)1 a dessert, made from flour, eggs, milk, sugar, etc, that is baked, and usually covered with icing. 2 a small, usually flat amount of dough, or some other food, that is baked or fried. 3 a small, flat lump of something(a cake of soap).
calamity (noun)1 a tragedy (the earthquake was a calamity for the whole area). 2 a serious misfortune (losing his job was a calamity for the family). adj calamitous.
calcium (noun)a soft, silver-white metal found in chalk, marble, etc, and the basic part of bones, teeth, and shells.
calculate (verb)1 to work with numbers and mathematics. 2 to estimate (calculate the cost of the repair work). 3 to plan for a purpose (a question calculated to trick us). adj calculable
calculating (adjective)1 scheming, clever, or sly, especially in a selfish way.
calculation (noun)1 the act or process of calculating (the calculation of the cost). 2 a sum (made a mistake in the calculation).
calculator (noun)a small electronic machine used to make arithmetical and mathematical calculations.
calendarCollective noun for saints (A calendar of saints) (see list of collective nouns)
calendar (noun)a table showing the relation of the days of the week to the dates of a particular year.
calf1 (noun)(pl calves ) the young of the cow, elephant, whale, etc.
calf2 (pl calves) the fleshy back part of the leg below the knee.
calfskin (noun)a type of leather made from a calf’s skin.
calico (noun)1 a kind of cotton cloth from India. 2 a cat with a coat that is a mix of black, brown, yellow, or orange.
Caligynephobiafear of beautiful women (see list of phobias)
Caliologystudy of bird's nests (see list of branches of science)
call (verb)1 to say or read in a loud voice; to shout or announce. 2 to give a name (call her daughter Amy) 3 to ask to come (call the next witness). 4 to make a short visit (call on her mother on her way home). n 1 a cry (a call for help). 2 a short visit. 3 a telephone call. 4 need, demand (there is no call for that brand of coffee in this store). a close call a narrow escape.
calligraphy (noun)1 handwriting as an art. 2 the art of writing well.
calling (noun)(formal) 1 profession or employment. 2 an inner urging toward some profession.
callous (adjective)hardened, unfeeling, insensitive (a callous treatment of animals). n callousness
calm (adjective)1 quiet, still (a calm day). 2 unexcited, not agitated (remained calm when the building went on fire). n 1 stillness. 2 freedom from excitement (admire her calm during the bomb scare). vb to make calm. n calmness
calorie (noun)1 a measure of heat. 2 a unit for measuring the energy value of food (diet by reducing the number of calories eaten).
Calorificsstudy of heat (see list of branches of science)
calve (verb)to give birth to a calf.
calypso (noun)songs sung as originally by the native people of Trinidad, with stresses and short, emphasized rhythms.
cam (noun)a wheel-like part of a machine that creates a straight movement from a rotating one.
Cambistryscience of international exchange (see list of branches of science)
camcorder (noun)a portable video camera that records pictures and sound.
camel (noun)an animal, found in Asian and African deserts, that has a long neck, cushioned feet, and one or two humps on its back. (Arabian camels have one hump, and Bactrian camels have two humps).
cameo (noun)1 a raised carving (usually of the side view of a person’s head) on a gem or shell, with a different color background. 2 a precious stone with a raised design carved on it, often of a different color. 3 a small but important role in a film or play performed by a celebrity.
camera (noun)a device for taking photographs or recording images (he has a new digital camera).
camisole (noun)a woman’s light undergarment, usually sleeveless and trimmed in lace, worn on the upper part of the body (wear a camisole under a sheer blouse).
camp (noun)1 a place where people live in tents, caravans, huts, etc (a holiday camp/a military camp). 2 a group of tents, caravans, huts, or other kinds of temporary shelter. vb to stay in or set up a camp.
camp bed (noun)a folding portable bed.
campaign (noun)1 a battle or series of battles in a war. 2 any series of actions, meetings, etc, directed to one purpose (a campaign to save the school). vb to take part in or conduct a campaign (campaigning against the motorway).
Campanologystudy of bells (see list of branches of science)
camphor (noun)a strong-smelling chemical mixture used in protecting fabrics from moths, in making plastics, and in medicine.
campus (noun)the grounds of a school or college.
can’tcontraction a shortened form of cannot.
can1 (verb)am, are, or is able to.
can2 (noun)a small metal container. vb (canned, canning) to put into tins to preserve (employed to can vegetables).
canal (noun)a man-made waterway.
canary (noun)a small, yellow bird often kept as a pet. adj bright yellow.
cancel (verb)(canceled, canceling) 1 to cross out. 2 to do away with. n cancellation
cancer (noun)1 a harmful, sometimes fatal growth in the body (receive surgery for cancer of the lung). 2 a growing evil (meaningless violence is a cancer in modern society).
Cancerophobiafear of cancer (see list of phobias)
candid (adjective)very honest or frank in what you say (my candid opinion/a candid person). adv candidly.
candidate (noun)1 someone who seeks a post or position (interview candidates for the job of manager). 2 someone who sits an examination.
candleCollective noun for tapirs (A candle of tapirs) (see list of collective nouns)
candle (noun)a mass of formed, shaped wax or tallow containing a wick for lighting (by the light of a candle).
candlestick (noun)a holder for a candle.
candor (noun),also candour (British spelling) frankness (she spoken with candor about her unhappy childhood).
candy (noun)1 sugar hardened by boiling. 2 any sweet or sweets (a box of candy). vb to preserve by boiling with sugar.
cane (noun)1 a usually bendable, slender, jointed, hollow stem, such as bamboo, sugar cane, etc. 2 a walking stick (an old man leaning on his cane). vb to beat with a cane.
cane sugar (noun)sugar obtained from the sugar cane.
canine (adjective)having to do with dogs or other animals in the dog family. canine tooth one of the pointed teeth in the front of the mouth.
canister (noun)a small box or tin (a canister of tea).
cannibal (noun)1 a person who eats human flesh. 2 an animal that eats the flesh of its own species. n cannibalism
cannon (noun)1 a large, mounted weapon.
cannonball (noun)an iron ball fired from a cannon.
cannot (often shortened to can’t) (verb) unable to do something (he cannot swim/she can’t sing).
canoe (noun)a narrow, light boat moved by paddles.
canola (noun)the seeds of a variety of the rape plant, used to make cooking oil.
canon (noun)1 the law or laws of a church. 2 a member of clergy who lives according to the laws in a church.
canopy (noun)a hanging cover forming a shelter above a throne, bed, etc (a canopy over the porch to keep out the sunlight).
cant1 (noun)1 a special way of speaking used by a particular group of people (thieves’ cant). 2 meaningless or insincere talk (just political cant).
cant2 (verb)to tilt up (the ship began to cant). n a tilt (a table with a definite cant).
cantaloupe (noun)a type of melon with sweet orange flesh.
canteen (noun)1 a place where food and drink can be obtained in a camp, factory, office, etc. 2 a small metal or plastic container for use in carrrying water.
canter (verb)to gallop at a smooth, easy pace (horses cantering over the meadow). Also n.
cantor (noun)someone who leads the singing and prayer in a synagogue.
canvas (noun)1 a coarse cloth of cotton, hemp, or linen, often unbleached, and used for sails, tents, etc. 2 a piece of canvas or similar material for painting on. 3 the sails of a ship. 4 an oil painting (sell a canvas by Picasso). under canvas moved or propelled by sails; sheltered in tents.
canvass (verb)1 to ask for votes or orders (politicians knocking on people’s doors to canvass for votes). 2 to look at or discuss in detail. n canvasser.
canyon (noun)a long, narrow valley between cliffs, often with a river or stream flowing through it.
cap (noun)1 a covering for the head with no brim or only part of one (boys wearing school caps). 2 a cover or lid (the cap of a bottle). vb (capped, capping) 1 to put a lid on (cap the bottle). 2 to improve on (cap his opponent’s performance). 3 to impose an upper limit on (cap local government spending).
capable (adjective)1 able to (capable of doing better). 2 likely to (capable of committing violent acts). 3 able to do things well, efficient (a capable manager). n capability
capacity (noun)1 ability to hold or contain (a capacity of 10 gallons/a seating capacity of 2000). 2 ability to produce or perform, experience, etc (a great capacity for hard work). 3 (formal) position (in his capacity as chairman).
cape1 (noun)a short cloak for covering the shoulders; a sleeveless cloak.
cape2 (noun)a piece of land jutting out into the water (Cape Cod is a popular vacation spot.)
caperCollective noun for kids (A caper of kids) (see list of collective nouns)
caper1 (verb)to jump about playfully (children capering about in excitement). n 1 a jump or leap. 2 a prank, a mischievous act. 3 a robbery.
caper2 (noun)a kind of tree or shrub that has tiny, green flower buds that are picked and used to flavor food (fish with a caper sauce).
capillary (adjective)very small and thin, hair-like. npl capillaries small blood vessels.
capital (adjective)1 chief (the capital city). 2 punishable by death (a capital offence). 3 (informal) excellent (capital entertainment). n 1 the top of a column or pillar. 2 the chief city. 3 money, especially when used for business (borrow capital from the bank). 4 a large letter, as used first in proper names.
capital punishment (noun)punishment by death (in some states, murderers are subjected to capital punishment).
capitalism (noun)an economic system where production is privately owned and run to make a profit.
capitalist (noun)a wealthy businessman, a person who owns capital.
caprice (noun)a sudden desire or fancy, a whim (a caprice made her change her plans).
capricious (adjective)changeable, unreasonable (too capricious to be relied on).
capsize (verb)to overturn or upset (in the storm, the ship capsized).
capsule (noun)1 a hollow pill containing medicine. 2 the part of a spacecraft containing the instruments and crew.
captain (noun)1 a commander. 2 an officer. 3 a leader (the captain of the football team). Also vb.
caption (noun)the heading over (or under) a picture in a book or other printed media.
captivate (verb)to charm, to fascinate (captivated by her beauty).
captive (noun)a prisoner. Also adj.
captivity (noun)the state of being a prisoner.
captor (noun)someone who takes a prisoner or holds something or someone captive.
capture (verb)1 to take prisoner, to catch (capture convicts trying to escape). 2 to take control of (capture the castle/capture the imagination). n 1 the act of catching or taking a prisoner. 2 the thing so caught or taken.
car (noun)1 a wheeled vehicle (a tramcar). 2 a motorcar, automobile. 3 a railway carriage (the dining car in the train).
carafe (noun)a glass bottle (a carafe of wine).
caramel (noun)1 burnt sugar in cooking (ice cream flavored with caramel). 2 a type of candy made with sugar, milk, ect (chew a caramel).
carat (noun)a unit of weight used for jewelry, equal to 200 milligrams.
caravan (noun)1 a large, covered vehicle for passengers, circus animals, etc. 2 a group of people traveling together for safety.
caraway (noun)a plant whose seeds are used to flavor cakes, breads, cheese, etc.
carbohydrate (noun)the substance in foods that gives you energy.
carbon (noun)a natural element, found in coal, charcoal, soot, etc.
carbon dioxide (noun)a gas without color or smell that is breathed out by people and animals and absorbed by plants.
carbon monoxide (noun)a poisonous gas, without color or smell, produced by the exhaust systems of cars, etc.
carburetor (noun)the part of a motor engine in which air is mixed with gasoline, etc, to make a vapor that will burn.
carcass (noun)the dead body of an animal (carcasses in a butcher’s shop).
Carcinologystudy of crabs and other crustaceans (see list of branches of science)
Carcinophobiafear of cancer (see list of phobias)
card1 (noun)a small piece of thick paper or other material for various purposes (birthday cards business cards credit card).
card2 (verb)to comb wool or flax before making it into thread. n an instrument for combing wool or flax. n carder
cardboard (noun)stiff, thick paper. adj (carboard boxes are very useful when you are moving house).
cardiac (adjective)having to do with the heart (cardiac disease).
cardigan (noun)a sweater that buttons down the front.
cardinal (adjective)very important, principal (a cardinal virtue). n 1 in the Roman Catholic Church, a high-ranking official with the right to take part in the election of the pope. 2 a bright red, crested bird.
Cardiologystudy of the heart (see list of branches of science)
Cardiophobiafear of the heart (see list of phobias)
care (noun)1 worry (a life full of care). 2 attention (read the article with care). 3 being looked after (in the care of a social worker). vb 1 to be concerned or interested (I don’t care what you say). 2 to look after (cares for her neighbor’s children). 3 to have a liking or love (for) (still cares for his wife).
career (noun)someone’s work or profession in life (a career in law). vb to move at full speed (the car careered downhill out of control).
careful (adjective)1 taking trouble. 2 cautious. adv carefully.
careless (adjective)taking little or no trouble. adv carelessly. n carelessness.
caress (verb)to touch or stroke lovingly (caressed her cheek). Also n.
caretaker (noun)someone who looks after a building or place.
cargo (noun)the goods carried by a ship, plane, etc (a cargo of tropical fruit).
caribou (noun)the North American reindeer.
caricature (noun)a cartoon picture of a person or thing that exaggerates a particular feature to make others laugh. vb to draw a caricature. n caricaturist
Caricologystudy of sedges (see list of branches of science)
carnage (noun)widespread killing, slaughter (the carnage of World War I).
carnal (adjective)having to do with the body rather than the spirit.
carnation (noun)a plant with usually double flowers of white, pink, or red that smell of cloves.
carnival (noun)1 a time of feasting and merriment just before Lent, a Christian time of fasting. 2 a circus or fair (the carnival is in town).
carnivore (noun)a flesh-eating animal (lions are carnivores). adj carnivorous
Carnophobiafear of meat (see list of phobias)
carol (noun)a song of joy, especially one sung at Christmas. vb (caroled, caroling) to sing joyfully.
carotid (noun)having to do with the two large arteries in the neck.
carousal (noun)(formal) a noisy drinking party.
carouse (verb)(formal) to drink freely.
carousel, carrousel (noun)a merry-go-round; a rotating conveyor belt.
carp1 (verb)to find fault or complain, often unreasonably (carping about petty details).
carp2 (noun)a freshwater fish.
carpenter (noun)someone who builds and repairs wooden things, especially for houses, ships, etc. n carpentry
carpet (noun)1 a thick covering of wool or other material for a floor. 2 a covering (a carpet of leaves). on the carpet being reproved by someone in authority for misconduct. vb 1 to cover with a carpet (carpeted the stairs). 2 to cover (snow carpeting the fields). 3 (informal) to scold, to reprimand (carpet him for being late).
carpetbag (noun)an old-fashioned traveling bag made of carpeting.
Carpologystudy of fruit (see list of branches of science)
carriage (noun)1 act of carrying. 2 the price of carrying (carriage extra). 3 the way someone stands or moves (she has a noble carriage). 4 a cart with wheels or other passenger vehicle (a horse-drawn carriage).
carrier (noun)1 someone who carries or transports goods. 2 anyone or anything that carries (a carrier of disease).
carrier pigeon (noun)a pigeon used for carrying letters.
carrion (noun)rotten flesh (vultures feeding on carrion).
carrot (noun)an orange-red root vegetable.
carry (verb)1 to take from one place to another (carry chairs from the van to the hall). 2 to go from one place to another (the sound of his voice carried tothe next room). 3 to have or hold (carry great responsibility/carry a whole range of goods). carry on 1 to continue to do (carry on speaking). 2 to behave badly or in an uncontrolled manner. carry out to perform (carry out the operation).
cart (noun)a two-wheeled vehicle or wagon for carrying goods. vb to carry by cart (cart the rubbish to the dump). n carter
cartilage (noun)an elastic substance surrounding the joints of bones.
Cartographystudy of making maps and globes (see list of branches of science)
cartography (noun)the art of mapmaking. n cartographer
carton (noun)a cardboard box (a carton of milk).
cartoon (noun)1 a comic drawing. 2 an animated drawing. n cartoonist
cartridge (noun)1 the container for the explosive that fires the bullet or shell from a gun. 2 any small container that carries a substance for a larger device (the ink cartridge for our printer is empty).
carve (verb)1 to cut into a special shape (carve a piece of wood into the shape of an animal). 2 to make by cutting wood or stone (carve animals out of stone). 3 to cut into slices (carve the meat).
carver (noun)1 someone who carves. 2 a carving knife.
cascade (noun)1 a waterfall. 2 something like a waterfall (a cascade of hair down her back). vb to fall or drop in a cascade.
case1 (noun)1 a box or container (a watch in a case a bookcase).
case21 an event, instance, or example (in that case you must go now a case of measles/a case of blackmail). 2 a person having medical, etc, treatment (a psychiatric case). 3 a statement of facts and arguments or reasons (there’s a good case for believing him). 4 a question to be decided in a court of law, a lawsuit.
cash (noun)1 coins or paper money, not checks or credit cards, etc. 2 immediate payment rather than by credit (a discount for paying cash). 3 (informal) money generally (make a lot of cash). vb to turn into money (cash traveler’s checks).
cashier (noun)someone who has charge of money in a store or a bank. vb to dismiss (an officer from the army, navy, etc) in disgrace.
cashmere (noun)a fine, soft, woolen material.
casino (noun)a hall for dancing or gambling.
cask (noun)a barrel.
casket (noun)1 a jewel case. 2 a coffin, or box in which a dead body is buried.
casserole (noun)1 a glass or earthenware dish in which food can be cooked in an oven and then served at table. 2 the food so prepared (a beef casserole).
cassette (noun)a flat plastic case containing tape for recording or playing back sounds or pictures.
cassock (noun)a long, closefitting robe worn by clergymen and those taking part in services.
castCollective noun for actors (A cast of actors) (see list of collective nouns)
castCollective noun for falcons (A cast of falcons) (see list of collective nouns)
castCollective noun for hawks (A cast of hawks) (see list of collective nouns)
castCollective noun for merlins (A cast of merlins) (see list of collective nouns)
castCollective noun for orthopaedists (A cast of orthopaedists) (see list of collective nouns)
cast (verb)(pt, pp cast) 1 to throw (cast a pebble in the pool). 2 to throw off (snakes casting their skins). 3 to shape (melted metal) in a mould. 4 to give parts to actors in (cast his new play). n 1 a throw. 2 a squint (in the eye). 3 a model made in a mould. 4 the actors in a play.
cast iron (noun)iron that has been melted and shaped in a mould. adj very strong.
castaway (noun)a shipwrecked person.
caste (noun)in India, the social class or rank into which someone is born.
caster (noun),also castor 1 a small jar or bottle with holes in the top for sprinkling salt, sugar, etc. 2 a small wheel on a piece of furniture, making it easy to move (a wardrobe on casters).
castigate (verb)(formal) to scold or criticize severely (employees castigated for arriving late). n castigation
castle (noun)1 a large building, usually one strengthened against attack (Windsor Castle). 2 a piece in chess. castles in the air a daydream.
casual (adjective)1 happening by chance (find out from a casual remark). 2 not regular (casual work in the summer). 3 uninterested (casual attitude to his work). 4 not careful, not thorough (take a casual glance at the page). 5 informal (casual clothes). adv casually.
casualty (noun)1 an accident, especially a fatal one (there’s been a casualty at the mine). 2 an injured or wounded person (no casualties in the train accident). 3 something that is damaged or destroyed as a result of an event (the library is a casualty of spending cuts).
cat (noun)1 an animal with soft fur and sharp claws, commonly kept as a pet. 2 a family of meat-eating animals. (lions are members of the cat family).
CAT scan(CAT acronym for computerized axial tomography) n a series of X-rays that create a three-dimensional image of the body (a CAT scan of the chest area).
catacomb (noun)an underground tomb.
Catacousticsstudy of echoes or reflected sounds (see list of branches of science)
Catagelophobiafear of being ridiculed (see list of phobias)
Catallacticsstudy of commercial exchange (see list of branches of science)
catalog (noun),also catalogue (British spelling) a complete list arranged in a special order so that the items can be found easily (she searched the catalog of the books in the library). vb to make a list (cataloging the books according to the alphabetical order of the authors’ last names).
catalogueCollective noun for librarians (A catalogue of librarians) (see list of collective nouns)
catalyst (noun)1 a substance that aids a chemical reaction but is not itself changed. 2 something or someone that causes a change in a situation or has a marked effect on the course of events (World War I was a catalyst for social change).
catamaran (noun)a sailing boat made in long, narrow parts joined by a bridge.
Catapedaphobiafear of jumping from high and low places (see list of phobias)
catapult (noun)a machine used for hurling heavy stones in war.
cataract (noun)1 a large waterfall. 2 a disease of the eye, causing gradual loss of sight.
catastrophe (noun)a sudden, great disaster (the flood was a catastrophe for the whole area). adj catastrophic
catchCollective noun for anglers (A catch of anglers) (see list of collective nouns)
catchCollective noun for collective nouns (A catch of collective nouns) (see list of collective nouns)
catch (verb)(pt, pp caught ) 1 to take and hold (catch the ball). 2 to capture (catch the remaining prisoners). 3 to become accidentally attached or held (her skirt caught on the door handle). 4 to surprise in the act of (catch him stealing). 5 to succeed in hearing (catch what he said). 6 to get by infection (catch measles from his sister). 7 to be in time for, to get on (catch the first bus in the morning). n 1 the act of catching. 2 the number of fish caught at one time. 3 a fastener (a gate catch). 4 a snag (a catch in the plan). 5 a song in which the same words and tune are repeated by several singers starting at different times.
catchy (adjective)memorable (a catchy tune).
categorical (adjective)definite (give a categorical denial). adv categorically.
category (noun)a class or group of things in a system of grouping (various categories in the dog-judging competition/books in categories of fiction, nonfiction, and reference).
cater (verb)1 to supply with food and drinks, especially at social occasions (the restaurant catering for the wedding reception). 2 to provide what is needed or desired (cater for a wide range of tastes). n caterer.
caterpillar (noun)the worm-like larvae of insects such as the butterfly or moth.
cathedral (noun)the main church in a district in which a bishop has his throne.
Cathisophobiafear of sitting (see list of phobias)
catholic (adjective)wide-ranging, broad, including many different things (a catholic taste in reading). n catholicity
Catholic (noun)a member of the Roman Catholic Church. Also adj.
catkin (noun)the furry blossom of the willow, hazel, etc.
Catoptrophobiafear of mirrors (see list of phobias)
cattle (noun)(functions as pl) cows, bulls, and oxen.
caucus (noun)a private meeting of leaders of a political party to decide policy, choose candidates, etc. (the presidential candidate was decided at the caucus).
caughtpast tense of catch.
cauldron (noun)a large boiling pot (the witch’s cauldron).
cauliflower (noun)a type of cabbage, of which the white, fleshy flower is eaten as a vegetable.
cause (noun)1 something or someone that produces an effect or result (an electrical fault was the cause of the fire little cause for complaint). 3 a purpose, aim (in the cause of peace). vb to make happen.
causeway (noun)1 a road or path raised on a mound above the surrounding country, as over wet ground or water. 2 a paved road.
caustic (adjective)1 burning (a caustic chemical substance). 2 bitter, severe (caustic remarks). adv caustically.
caution (noun)1 carefulness, especially to avoid risk or danger (cross the busy road with caution). 2 warning (receive a caution from the police to stop speeding). vb 1 to warn against possible danger (caution children against talking to strangers). 2 to give a warning to, often with the threat of future punishment (this time the police just cautioned him for careless driving).
cautious (adjective)careful, showing caution (a cautious driver/cautious about spending a lot of money).
cavalcadeCollective noun for horsemen (A cavalcade of horsemen) (see list of collective nouns)
cavalcade (noun)a procession (the president travels with a cavalcade of cars) (originally, of people on horseback).
cavalier (noun)an armed horseman. adj offhand, casual, and disrespectful (a cavalier disregard for other people’s feelings). adv cavalierly
cavalry (noun)originally soldiers on horses, but now often riding in armored trucks or tanks.
cave (noun)a hollow place in the earth, as in a hillside extending back. cave in to fall in over a hollow.
cave man (noun)1 (old) a human who, in the earliest times, lived in a cave. 2 a man with very rough manners, especially toward women.
cavern (noun)a large cave. vb to hollow out.
cavernous (adjective)large and hollow, like a cavern (the lion opened its cavernous mouth).
caviar(e) (noun)the eggs of sturgeon, salmon, and similar fish eaten as a delicacy.
cavity (noun)1 a hollow place. 2 a hole (a cavity in his tooth).
cayenne (noun)a very hot red pepper.
CCTVabbreviation for closed circuit television, a type of surveillance camera system (the thieves were seen on CCTV robbing the jeweler’s shop).
CDabbreviation for compact disk, also compact disc (British spelling) a small, mirrored, plastic disk that stores music, images, or files that are read optically by a laser beam.
CD-ROMabbreviation for compact disk read-only memory, a disk that holds files that can be read by a computer but that cannot be altered.
cease (verb)1 to stop (soldiers were ordered to cease firing/the factory has ceased making weapons). 2 to come to an end (the noise finally ceased).
ceaseless (adjective)endless, continuous (ceaseless chatter).
cedar (noun)1 a large, cone-bearing tree or its wood.
ceiling (noun)1 the inside roof of a room. 2 the greatest height to which a particular aircraft can climb. 3 an upper limit (a wages ceiling of 3%).
celebrate (verb)1 to perform a religious ceremony. 2 to honor an event by feasting and rejoicing (celebrate her birthday). n celebration
celebrated (adjective)famous (the celebrated artist).
celebrity (noun)a famous person (the new hall was opened by a local celebrity).
celery (noun)a kind of vegetable, of which the green stem is eaten either cooked or raw.
celestial (adjective)1 heavenly (celestial beings such as angels). 2 having to do with the sky (celestial bodies such as planets).
Celestial mechanicsstudy of motion of objects in outer space (see list of branches of science)
celibacy (noun)the state of being unmarried, not having sexual relationships.
celibate (adjective)unmarried, not having sexual relationships (Catholic priests must remain celibate).
cell (noun)1 a small, bare room, especially in a prison or monastery. 2 a space in a honeycomb. 3 a single unit of living matter (red blood cells). 4 a unit of an electric battery. 5 a small group of people working toward the same end (a terrorist cell).
Cell biologystudy of the different structures and functions of both eukaryote and prokaryote cells (see list of branches of science)
cellar (noun)an area underneath a house, often used for storage.
cello(short for violoncello) a musical instrument of the violin family, between the viola and bass in size and pitch. n cellist.
cellophane (noun)a thin, transparent wrapping material (wrap the flowers in cellophane).
cellphone (noun)(short for cellular telephone) a portable phone operated by a radio communication system based on a network of transmitters each serving a small area known as a cell. Also mobile phone.
cellular (adjective)having cells, made up of cells (cellular tissue/cellular radio).
cellulose (noun)a substance obtained from wood or plants and used in making paper, imitation silk, film, etc.
Celsius (adjective)a way of measuring temperature so that 0 degrees is the freezing point of water and 100 degrees is the boiling point.
cement (noun)a powdered substance that, mixed with liquid, forms a solid material used to make things stick together (bricks stuck together with cement). vb 1 to join with cement. 2 to unite closely (cement their relationship by marrying).
cemetery (noun)a burial ground, a graveyard.
Cenophobiafear of new things or ideas (see list of phobias)
Cenotophobiafear of voids, empty rooms, barren spaces (see list of phobias)
censer (noun)a décorated container in which incense is burned.
censor (noun)someone who examines letters, books, films, etc, to see if they contain anything inappropriate, offensive, or harmful to society (censors removed anything offensive in the film). Also vb. n censorship adj censorious
census (noun)1 an official counting of a country’s population. 2 an official counting of other things (take a traffic census on the new highway).
cent (noun)a coin that is worth one-hundredth of a dollar, euro, etc; a penny.
centaur (noun)in Greek myths, an imaginary creature that is half man and half horse.
centenarian (noun)a person at least 100 years old.
centenary (noun)the 100th year after a certain event (the centenary of the opening of the school).
centennial (adjective)happening once every 100 years.
center (noun),also centre (British spelling) 1 the middle point or part of anything (the center of the circle/the center of the town). 2 a place where certain activities or facilities are concentrated (a shopping center). 3 a political position that is not extreme (people in the center of the party). vb 1 to put into the middle (centered the picture on the wall). 2 to collect or concentrate at or around (interests centering on sport).
centimeter (noun)100th of a meter. abbreviation cm.
centipede (noun)a small, insect-eating, caterpillar-like animal with a segmented body and many feet.
Centophobiafear of new things or ideas. (see list of phobias)
central (adjective)1 in the middle (the central barrier in a highway). 2 chief (the central character in the novel).
centralize (verb), also centralise (British spelling)to bring together to one place (regions object to government being centralized). n centralization also centralisation (British spelling)
centrifugal (adjective)describing a physical force that causes an object that is rotating around a central point to move away from that point.
centripetal (adjective)describing a physical force that pulls something toward the centre point it is rotating around.
centurion (noun)(old) the captain of a hundred men, especially in an ancient Roman army.
century (noun)one hundred years.
ceramic (adjective)having to do with pottery, earthenware, tile, etc.
ceramics (noun)the art or work of making pottery, earthenware, tile, etc.
Ceraunophobiafear of thunder and lightning (see list of phobias)
cereal (noun)1 any grain that can be eaten (wheat and barley are cereals). 2 food made from such grain, often eaten at breakfast.
cerebral (adjective)1 having to do with the brain (a cerebral tumor). 2 intellectual rather than emotional (cerebral poetry).
ceremonial (noun)the actions connected with a ceremony. adj having to do with a ceremony.
ceremonious (adjective)full of ceremony, very formal (ceremonious events).
ceremony (noun)1 the performing of certain actions in a fixed order for a religious or other serious purpose (a wedding ceremony). 2 formal behavior, formality (an occasion of great ceremony).
certain (adjective)1 sure (a certain victory). 2 particular (certain people).
certainly (adverb)1 undoubtedly. 2 willingly.
certainty (noun)1 the state of being certain or sure (I can say with certainty that he will succeed). 2 that which is certain (it’s a certainty that they will win).
certificate (noun)a written statement of fact (birth certificate/a certificate of insurance).
certify (verb)1 to confirm formally the truth of a statement (certify that he is the owner of the car). 2 officially to declare a person crazy (the patient was certified and sent to a mental hospital).
ceteCollective noun for badgers (A cete of badgers) (see list of collective nouns)
Cetologystudy of whales and dolphins (see list of branches of science)
Chaetophobiafear of hair (see list of phobias)
chafe (verb)1 to warm by rubbing. 2 to make sore or wear away by rubbing. 3 to be angry.
chainCollective noun for bobolinks (A chain of bobolinks) (see list of collective nouns)
chainCollective noun for events (A chain of events) (see list of collective nouns)
chainCollective noun for islands (A chain of islands) (see list of collective nouns)
chainCollective noun for lynx (A chain of lynx) (see list of collective nouns)
chainCollective noun for surveyors (A chain of surveyors) (see list of collective nouns)
chain (noun)1 a number of metal rings joined to form a rope (the dog was fastened to the fence by a chain a silver chain around her neck). 2 a number of connected facts or events, a series (a chain of events). 3 a measure of length. 4 (of mountains) a range. vb to bind or fasten with a chain (chain the dog to the fence).
chair (noun)1 a movable seat with a back. 2 chairperson. 3 the seat or place of an official (e.g. of a professor in a university or a person controling a meeting). vb to be in charge of a meeting (chairing the annual general meeting).
chairman, chairperson, chairwoman (noun)someone who controls a meeting.
chalet (noun)a wooden house or hut with a steeply sloping roof, common in Switzerland.
chalice (noun)1 (old) a drinking cup. 2 a cup with a stem, especially used in church services.
chalk (noun)1 a soft, white limestone. 2 a piece of chalk used for writing on a blackboard. vb to mark with chalk. adj chalky.
chalk board (noun)a smooth black or slate surface, usually in a classroom, which can be written on with chalk.
challenge (verb)1 to call on another to fight or play a match to see who is the better (challenge him to a duel challenge his right to be present). n 1 the daring of another to a contest. 2 a statement or action that questions something (a challenge to the leader’s authority). 3 a difficult or exciting task (his new job is a challenge). n challenger.
chamber (noun)1 (old) a room. 2 a room in which a meeting takes place (the judge asked the lawyers to meet in his chamber). 3 an administrative group (the Chamber of Commerce). 4 the part of a gun in which the cartridge is held.
chamber music (noun)music written to be played by only a few people (such as a quartet) for a small audience, as in a room rather than a hall.
chameleon (noun)a type of lizard that can change the color of its skin.
champ (verb)to chew noisily with the teeth (horses champing hay). vb short for champion.
champagne (noun)a type of sparkling white wine.
champion (noun)1 someone who has beaten all his or her rivals or opponents (the club tennis champion). 2 someone who fights for a certain cause, or for another person (a champion of animal rights). vb to defend or support (champion the cause of freedom).
championship (noun)1 a series of contests or matches to discover the champion. 2 the state of being a champion.
chance (noun)1 accident (we met by chance). 2 opportunity (the chance to get a better job). 3 risk (take a chance and try to escape). vb 1 (formal) to happen (I chanced to see him yesterday). 2 to risk (it may rain on our picnic but we’ll just have to chance it). adj accidental (a chance meeting).
chancel (noun)the altar end of a church.
chancellor (noun)1 a country’s leader or high government official (Angela Merkel is the first ever female Chancellor of Germany). 2 the chief judge of England. 3 the head of a university. Chancellor of the Exchequer in Britain, the chief minister of finance in the government.
chandelier (noun)a hanging lamp frame with branches to hold lights (formerly candles).
change (verb)1 to become different (her lifestyle has changed change your clothes). 3 to put or take one thing in place of another, to exchange (change your library books). n 1 a difference or alteration (see a change in her/a change in the direction of the wind). 2 money given in return for money received (given the wrong change by the shop assistant). 3 small coin (I have only a $10 bill—I have no change). adj changeable, changeless.
changeling (noun)(myth) a child put by fairies in the place of another, as told in folk tales.
channel (noun)1 the course of a river. 2 the deep part of a river where ships can sail safely. 3 a narrow sea.
chant (verb)1 to sing. 2 to recite slowly in a singing voice. n 1 a song. 2 a way of singing sacred music.
Chaologystudy of chaos or chaos theory (see list of branches of science)
chaos (noun)a state of utter confusion, disorder (the chaos in the room during the children’s party).
chaotic (adjective)completely without order or arrangement (chaotic traffic conditions in the snow).
chap1 (verb)(chapped, chapping) (of skin) to become dry and cracked (hands chapped by the cold). n a crack in the skin, caused by cold and wet. adj chapped
chap2 (noun)(informal) a man, a fellow (a friendly chap).
chapel (noun)a small church.
chaperone (noun)1 especially formerly, an older person, usually a woman, who accompanies young unmarried people when they goes out. 2 a person who supervises young people on an outing (the chaperon of the Sunday-school group). vb to act as chaperon to.
chaplain (noun)1 a clergyman serving a private chapel. 2 a clergyman with the armed forces.
chaps (noun, plural)protective leather leggings worn by people riding on horseback.
chapter (noun)1 a division of a book. 2 a meeting of the canons of a cathedral.
char (verb)(charred, charring) 1 to burn in part (furniture charred in the fire). 2 to burn the outside (char the steak).
character (noun)1 a letter or figure or, as in Chinese, a symbol standing for a whole word. 2 a person’s nature as known by words, deeds, etc. 3 a reputation (not of very good character). 4 a person in a story or play (the chief characters in the novel). 5 (informal) an odd, humorous, or interesting person (he’s quite a character). 6 (informal) a person (a nasty character).
characteristic (noun)a single point in a person’s character, a special and recognizable quality in someone or something (generosity is not one of his characteristics/a characteristic of the disease). adj typical (signs characteristic of the disease).
characterize (verb), also characterise (British spelling) 1 to be characteristic or typical of. 2 (formal) to describe as (characterize the terrorist attack as a bid for freedom).
Characterologystudy of development of character (see list of branches of science)
charade (noun)1 the acting out of a word in the game of charades. 2 something that is easily seen to be false (the trial was just a charade as they had decided he was guilty).
charades (noun)a word game in which one team acts out a word while the other team has to guess what the word is.
charcoal (noun)partly burned wood used as fuel (steak grilled over charcoal).
chargeCollective noun for curates (A charge of curates) (see list of collective nouns)
chargeCollective noun for taxis (A charge of taxis) (see list of collective nouns)
charge (verb)1 to ask a price (charge $6 a ticket). 2 to accuse (charge him with murdering his brother). 3 to rush (children charging into the room). 4 to attack at speed (charge the enemy). 5 to fill with electricity or energy (charge the battery). 6 to tell a person to do something as a duty (charge them with getting the groom to the church). n 1 a load of electricity or energy. 2 a price (the hotel’s expensive charge). 3 a duty, especially that of a clergyman. 4 a violent attack. 5 an accusation (bring a charge of murder). adj chargeable. take charge to take command, take control.
chariot (noun)(old) a horse-drawn, two-wheeled cart used in ancient times for war, racing, parades, etc.
charioteer (noun)(old) the driver of a chariot.
charity (noun)1 a love of other human beings. 2 kindness to others. 3 generosity in giving to the poor. 4 an organization that raises money to help people in need or other good causes (collecting money in aid of a children’s charity). adj charitable
charlatan (noun)someone who deceives by pretending to have special knowledge or skill (the supposed doctor was a charlatan).
charmCollective noun for finches (A charm of finches) (see list of collective nouns)
charmCollective noun for goldfinches (A charm of goldfinches) (see list of collective nouns)
charmCollective noun for hummingbirds (A charm of hummingbirds) (see list of collective nouns)
charmCollective noun for words (A charm of words) (see list of collective nouns)
charm (noun)1 a magic spell (the witch reciting a charm). 2 an object or words possessing magical power (wear a charm). 3 any small ornament worn as decoration on a necklace, bracelet, or other jewelry (one of the charms on her bracelet was of a flower). 4 attractiveness of character, a pleasant quality (succeeded in deceiving people because of her great charm). 5 pl (formal) beauty (use her charms to get her way). vb 1 to put under a spell (charmed by the wizard). 2 to delight (charmed by her personality).
chart (noun)1 a map, especially one for sailors. 2 a paper showing information in a graph or table (a chart showing production progress).
charter (noun)a written document granting certain rights. vb to hire (charter a boat).
chase1 (verb)1 to run after (chase the man who stole the old lady’s bag). 2 to drive away (chase away the boys who were stealing the apples). n a pursuit, a hunt.
chase2 (verb)1 to engrave or cut figures on metal. 2 n a groove cut into a wall to provide space for a pipe.
chasm (noun)1 a wide, deep crack in the surface of the earth, a gorge, a canyon. 2 a wide gap or difference of opinion, attitudes, feelings, etc (the chasm between the two families).
chaste (adjective)pure, decent, or modest in nature.
chasten (verb)to teach by suffering or punishment (chastened by the thought that he had caused his brother’s death).
chastise (verb)to punish severely, especially by beating. n chastisement
chastity (noun)purity, the state of being chaste.
chat (verb)(chatted, chatting) to talk informally, often about unimportant matters (chat on the phone to her friend). n a friendly talk.
chat room (noun)an Internet website that allows several members to send each other typed instant messages.
château (noun)(pl châteaux) a French castle or country house.
chattel (noun)1 pl movable belongings, someone’s possessions. 2 a slave or slaves.
chatter (verb)1 to talk quickly and continuously, usually about something unimportant (children chattering when the teacher was out of the room). 2 to make meaningless sounds (monkeys chattering). Also n. n chatterer.
chatterbox (noun)one who chatters a great deal.
chatteringCollective noun for choughs (A chattering of choughs) (see list of collective nouns)
chatteringCollective noun for cockatoos (A chattering of cockatoos) (see list of collective nouns)
chatteringCollective noun for coughs (A chattering of coughs) (see list of collective nouns)
chauffeur (noun)a person employed to drive someone’s car. Also vb.
chauvinism (noun)too great a pride in one’s country, race, sex, ect, leading to a dislike or mistreatment of others. n chauvinist
cheap (adjective)1 of a low price. 2 of little value.
cheapen (verb)to lessen the price or value of.
cheat (verb)to deceive, to use unfair means. n 1 a trick. 2 a swindler.
check (verb)1 to stop. 2 to slow down. 3 to scold. 4 to look at something to see if it is correct or in order. n 1 a sudden halt or obstacle. 2 a control. 3 a bill at a restaurant or bar. 4 a slip of paper with a person’s bank details on it used as payment; a written order to a bank to pay out a sum of money from one’s bank account (Br cheque). adj checked divided into or marked by squares.
checkers (noun, plural)a game that is played between two people using 12 round, flat pieces on a board divided into checks, the objective being to capture the other player’s pieces.
checkmate (noun)the winning move in chess. vb to defeat another’s plans.
cheddar (noun)a variety of cheese.
cheek (noun)the side of the face (kiss her on the cheek).
cheeky (adjective)impudent, disrespectful.
cheep (noun)a faint squeak, a chirp (the cheep of a young bird). Also vb.
cheer (noun)1 (old) mood, disposition (be of good cheer). 2 a shout of joy or encouragement (the cheers of the football supporters). vb 1 to brighten up (cheered him up by taking him to the movies/cheer the room up with some new curtains). 2 to encourage, especially by shouts (cheering on their football team).
cheerful (adjective)1 happy and lively (a cheerful person/a cheerful mood). 2 bright and attractive (cheerful colors).
cheerless (adjective)sad, gloomy (a cheerless room).
cheese (noun)a solid food made from milk.
cheetah (noun)a large, wild animal of the cat family that is lean and fast and has a coat with black spots on it.
chef (noun)a cook in charge of a kitchen.
Cheimaphobiafear of cold (see list of phobias)
Cheimatophobiafear of cold (see list of phobias)
chemical (adjective)having to do with chemistry. n a substance studied in chemistry.
chemist (noun)someone who studies or works in chemistry.
Chemistrystudy of properties and behaviours of substances (see list of branches of science)
chemistry (noun)the science that separates and studies the substance(s) of which all things are made.
Chemophobiafear of chemicals (see list of phobias)
cherish (verb)1 to treat lovingly, to hold dear (cherish his only daughter). 2 to keep in the mind or heart (cherish hopes of becoming wealthy/cherish her memory).
Cherophobiafear of happiness or gaiety (see list of phobias)
cherry (noun)1 a small, pitted fruit. 2 a tree bearing cherries.
cherub (noun)(pl cherubs or cherubim) 1 an angel. 2 in art, an angel pictured as a winged child. 3 a beautiful, innocent-looking child (she looked like an angel in her little white dress).
cherubic (adjective)angelic.
chess (noun)a game of skill played on a checkered board by two people with sixteen chessmen that are limited in their movements according to kind, the object being to capture the king (the chess match was shown on television).
chessmen (noun)game pieces used in chess, including a king, a queen, two rooks (or castles), two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns.
chestCollective noun for drawers (A chest of drawers) (see list of collective nouns)
chest (noun)1 a large, strong box. 2 the front, upper part of the body, from the shoulders to the lowest ribs.
chestnut (noun)1 a nut. 2 a tree bearing chestnuts. 3 a reddish brown horse (the horse that won the race was a chestnut mare). adj reddish brown.
chevron (noun)a V-shaped strip of cloth worn on the sleeve as a sign of rank in the military.
chew (verb)to crush with the teeth (his tooth was so sore he could hardly chew his food).
chic (adjective)smart, fashionable (she bought all her dresses at a chic dress shop).
Chicana (noun)a Mexican American woman.
chicanery (noun)trickery (persuaded the old lady to leave him her money by chicanery).
Chicano (noun)a Mexican American man.
chick (noun)a young bird.
chick pea (noun)a large kind of pea.
chicken (noun)1 a farm bird raised for its eggs and meat. 2 a person who is afraid, not brave, timid.
chickenpox (noun)a disease involving fever and red itchy spots, usually affecting children.
chicory (noun)a plant used in salads or in cooking, also sometimes mixed with coffee.
chide (verb)to scold (chiding the children for talking in class).
chief (adjective)1 highest in rank (the chief clerk). 2 most important, main (the chief crops of the country). n a head, a leader (the chief of the tribe was a tall, imposing man). adv chiefly.
chieftain (noun)a chief, the head of a clan or tribe.
chiffon (noun)a thin, silky cloth.
chigger (noun)a tiny parasitic insect that can cause a rash on the skin.
child (noun)(pl children ) 1 a young boy or girl, an adolescent (I have lived here since I was a child). 2 a son or daughter (they have two children). n childhood
child-care (noun)the care of children, especially by people other than the parents, when they are at work (most of her salary goes to pay for child-care).
childish (adjective)1 like a child (childish voices). 2 silly, immature (their childish behavior in not speaking to their neighbors).
childrenyoung boys and/or girls
chili (noun), also chilli (pl chilies, also chillies) the small red or green seed pod of a type of hot pepper, used in cooking to flavor spicy food.
chill (noun)1 coldness (a chill in the air). 2 coldness of manner, unfriendliness. vb 1 to make cold (children were chilled after their walk in the snow). 2 to make cold without freezing (chill the wine). 3 to discourage (chill their hopes). adj cold (a chill wind).
chilly (adjective)1 cold (a chilly day). 2 unfriendly (a chilly welcome).
chimeCollective noun for ice cream carts (A chime of ice cream carts) (see list of collective nouns)
chime (noun)1 the sound of a bell. 2 the music of bells. 3 pl a set of bells. vb to ring musically. chime in to agree.
chimney (noun)a passage by which smoke may escape from a fireplace.
chimney pot (noun)a pipe at the top of a chimney.
chimney sweep (noun)someone who cleans chimneys.
chimpanzee (noun)a type of ape found in Africa with black fur and large ears.
china (noun)1 a fine, thin porcelain or ceramic ware. 2 cups, plates, ornaments, etc, made of this.
chinchilla (noun)1 a small rodent valued for its fur. 2 the fur from this animal.
chineCollective noun for polecats (A chine of polecats) (see list of collective nouns)
chink (noun)1 a very narrow opening (peer through a chink in the door). 2 a ringing or jingling sound (the chink of money in his pockets). vb to jingle.
chintz (noun)a gaily patterned cotton material that is usually glazed.
Chionologystudy of snow (see list of branches of science)
Chionophobiafear of snow (see list of phobias)
chip (noun)a small piece (wood chips). 2 a counter or token used in games. vb (chipped, chipping) 1 to cut into small pieces (chip some ice from a large block). 2 to break small pieces from, often accidentally (will this paint chip?).
chipmunk (noun)a type of small squirrel with black stripes down its head and back, living mainly in the ground and found in North America.
Chiraptophobiafear of being touched (see list of phobias)
Chirographystudy of handwriting or penmanship (see list of branches of science)
Chirologystudy of the hands (see list of branches of science)
Chirophobiafear of hands (see list of phobias)
Chiropodystudy of feet (see list of branches of science)
Chiroptophobiafear of bats (see list of phobias)
chirp (verb)to make a short, sharp whistling sound (birds chirping). Also n.
chisel (noun)a tool used for cutting or chipping wood, stone, etc. vb (chiseled , chiseling ), also chiselled, chiselling (British spelling)
chivalry (noun)1 (old) the rules of good behavior laid down for knights in the Middle Ages; gentlemanly behavior. 2 good manners, especially toward women. adj chivalric , chivalrous
chloride (noun)a mixture of chlorine with another substance.
chlorine (noun)a chemical used as a bleaching agent.
chlorophyll (noun)the green coloring of plants.
chocolate (noun)a paste, powder, syrup, or bar made from cacao seeds that have been roasted and ground; a kind of candy bar. adj chocolate-colored, i.e. reddish brown.
choice (noun)1 act of choosing (he left his job by choice). 2 that which is chosen (like their choice of song/Italy was her first choice). adj very good, excellent (choice fruit).
choirCollective noun for singers (A choir of singers) (see list of collective nouns)
choir (noun)1 a group of singers. 2 the part of a church where the choir sits.
choke (verb)1 to be unable to breathe (people choking in the fumes from the fire). 2 to prevent breathing by pressing the windpipe. 3 to block up (the man in the restaurant was choking on a piece of food). n 1 a fit of choking or its sound. 2 a part that controls the flow of air in a carburetor.
cholera (noun)a serious stomach illness.
Cholerophobiafear of anger (see list of phobias)
choose (verb)(pt chose, pp chosen) to select or take what you prefer (choose a dish from the menu/choosing the members of his team).
chop (verb)(chopped, chopping) 1 to cut with a quick strong blow. 2 to cut into pieces (chop the vegetables). n a piece of pork or mutton on a rib bone (a pork chop).
choppy (adjective)rough (a choppy sea).
chops (noun, plural)the jaws (dogs licking their chops).
chopsticks (noun, plural)two long, thin sticks held in one hand, used in some Asian countriesinstead of a knife and fork.
choral (adjective)having to do with a chorus or choir (choral music).
chord (noun)1 a group of several musical notes played all at once and in harmony.
chore (noun)a regular job about the house (chores such as washing the dishes).
Chorologystudy of the geographic description of anything (see list of branches of science)
Chorophobiafear of dancing (see list of phobias)
chorusCollective noun for composers (A chorus of composers) (see list of collective nouns)
chorus (noun)1 a group of singers and sometimes dancers. 2 a song or part of a song in which all may join (ask the audience to sing the chorus). vb to sing or speak together (“Goodbye,” chorused the children to their teacher).
Chrematisticsstudy of wealth; political economy (see list of branches of science)
Chrematophobiafear of money (see list of phobias)
christen (verb)1 to baptize, or make part of the Christian church (have their son christened in church). 2 to name (she calls herself Kate although she was christened Catherine) 3 to make use of for the first time. n christening.
Christian (adjective)having to do with Christ and his teaching. n a believer in Christ.
Christmas (noun)December 25, the day each year on which the birth of Christ is celebrated.
Chromatophobiafear of colors (see list of phobias)
Chrometophobiafear of money (see list of phobias)
Chromophobia fear of colors (see list of phobias)
chronic (adjective)lasting for a long time (a chronic illness).
chronicle (adjective)a record of events, set down in the order in which they happened (a chronicle of the events leading up to the war). Also vb. n chronicler.
Chronobiologystudy of biological rhythms (see list of branches of science)
chronological (adjective)arranged in order of time (announce the dates of the meetings in chronological order).
Chronomentrophobiafear of clocks (see list of phobias)
Chronophobiafear of time (see list of phobias)
chrysalis (noun)an early stage in the life of a flying insect, when it is shut up in a cocoon until its wings grow.
chrysanthemum (noun)a garden plant with a large, bushy flower.
Chrysologystudy of precious metals (see list of branches of science)
chubby (adjective)plump (chubby babies).
chuck wagon (noun)a portable kitcken on a covered wagon.
chuckle (verb)to laugh quietly (chuckling over his comic). Also n.
chum (noun)(informal) a close friend (old school chums). adj chummy.
chunk (noun)a thick piece (a chunk of cheese).
church (noun)1 a building set aside for worship. 2 a group of people having the same beliefs and religious organization. 3 those in charge of a religious organization.
churn (noun)a vessel or machine for making butter. vb to shake or stir (cream) so as to make butter.
chute (noun)1 a waterfall. 2 a sloping passage or slide (children sliding down the chute in the playground).
chutney (noun)a savoury preserve or relish made, usually, from fruit, vegetables and spices.
Cibophobiafear of food (see list of phobias)
cider (noun)a drink made from pressed apple juice.
cigar (noun)a roll of tobacco for smoking, consisting of cut tobacco rolled in a whole tobacco leaf.
cigarette (noun)tobacco finely cut and rolled in thin paper for smoking.
cinder (noun)partly burned coal or wood.
cinema (noun)1 a building in which movies are shown. 2 the industry of making movies. adj cinematic.
cinnamon (noun)a yellowish brown spice made from the dried inner bark of several kinds of trees and shrubs of the laurel family, used in cooking.
circleCollective noun for friends (A circle of friends) (see list of collective nouns)
circle (noun)1 a perfectly round figure. 2 a group of people (a small circle of close friends). vb 1 to move round (dancers circling the room). 2 to draw a circle around (circled the correct word).
circlet (noun)a ring or circular band worn as an ornament.
circuit (noun)1 a path round earth’s circuit around the sun). 2 the act of moving around (do a circuit of the city streets). 3 the journey of a judge round a district to hold courts of law in several places. 4 the path of an electric current.
circular (adjective)round (a circular shape). n a letter, copies of which are sent to many people (sent a circular to the parents about school sports day).
circularize (verb), also circularise (British spelling)to send circulars to (circularize the members to get their views).
circulate (verb)1 to move in a circle or a fixed path (water circulating in the pipes of the heating system). 2 to pass round, to spread (circulate information). 3 to move from one person to another (a hostess circulating among the guests).
circulation (noun)1 the act of circulating. 2 the movement of the blood through the body. 3 the number of readers (of a newspaper, etc).
circumference (noun)the line marking the limits of a circle.
circumnavigate (verb)(formal) to sail around (circumnavigate the world).
circumstance (noun)1 (usually pl) a condition relating to or connected with an act or event (the circumstances surrounding the robbery/given the circumstances the police let him go). 2 pl state of affairs, position (often financial) (in very bad circumstances).
circus (noun)1 a traveling show given largely by skilled acrobats and trained animals.
cistern (noun)a tank for storing water.
citadel (noun)a fortress above a city for its defense.
cite (verb)1 to call to appear in court. 2 to quote. 3 to give as an example.
citizen (noun)1 an inhabitant of a city. 2 a member of a state.
citizenship (noun)being, or having the rights of, a citizen.
citrus (adjective)of a group of related fruits, including the lemon, orange, lime, and grapefruit.
city (noun)a center of population larger than a town or village.
civic (adjective)1 having to do with a city (a civic function). 2 having to do with citizens or citizenship (your civic duty). npl civics the study of the rights and duties of citizens.
civil (adjective)1 having to do with citizens (civil disorder). 2 having to do with those citizens who are members of neither the armed forces nor the clergy (civil, not military, government). 3 polite (shop assistants who are scarcely civil). adv civilly. n civility
civil war (noun)a war between citizens of the same country.
civilian (noun)someone not in the armed forces.
civilization (noun), also civilisation (British spelling)1 a well-organized and polished society (the ancient civilizations of Greece and Egypt). 2 the state of being civilized (living with a savage tribe far from civilization).
civilize (verb), also civilise (British spelling)1 to bring or come out of a primitive condition. 2 to make more polite and well-mannered. adj civilized, also civilised (British spelling)
clad (past participle)of clothe (he was clad in ceremonial dress).
claim (verb)to demand as a right (claimed the throne/claiming his share of the goods). Also n.
clam (noun)a type of shellfish.
clamber (verb)to climb with difficulty, to scramble (there were children clambering over the rocks). Also n.
clammy (adjective)damp, cold, and sticky (clammy hands/the weather was clammy before the storm).
clamor (noun),also clamour (British spelling) loud shouting, a general outcry, especially demanding something (a clamor from the audience to get their money back). vb to shout (for something).
clamorous (adjective)noisy (clamorous protesters).
clamp (noun)a device used for holding things firmly together. vb to fasten with a clamp.
clanCollective noun for hyenas (A clan of hyenas) (see list of collective nouns)
clanCollective noun for meerkats (A clan of meerkats) (see list of collective nouns)
clanCollective noun for Scots (A clan of Scots) (see list of collective nouns)
clan (noun)an early social group of families with the same name, thought to be related, who were ruled by a chief. n clansman , clanswoman
clang (noun)a loud ringing sound, as of metal against metal (the iron gates shut with a clang). Also vb.
clankCollective noun for tanks (A clank of tanks) (see list of collective nouns)
clank (noun)a short, sharp ringing sound (the clank of chains). Also vb.
clap (verb)(clapped , clapping) 1 to smack the hands together noisily (the audience clapped when the singer appeared). 2 to slap or tap, usually in a friendly way (clap him on the back in congratulation). 3 to put suddenly and quickly (clap the wrongdoers in jail). n 1 the noise made by clapping the hands. 2 a sudden sound (e.g. of thunder).
clarify (verb)to make clear or clearer (clarified the instructions cla-ri-fi-cay-shun/.
clarinet (noun)a musical wind instrument with a wooden reed in the mouthpiece. n clarinetist , also clarinettist (British spelling)
clarity (noun)clearness (the clarity of his speech/the clarity of the instructions).
clash (verb)1 to strike together noisily (clash the cymbals). 2 to disagree strongly about (the two sides clashed over money). 3 to happen at the same time, as in events (the concert clashed with my birthday party). n 1 the loud noise of two objects coming violently together. 2 a quarrel.
clasp (noun)1 a metal fastener (the clasp of a brooch). 2 a firm hold (hold her hand in a firm clasp). vb 1 to fasten. 2 to hold firmly (clasp her mother’s hand).
classCollective noun for students (A class of students) (see list of collective nouns)
class (noun)1 a group of persons or things of the same kind (plants divided into classes). 2 a group of pupils or students. 3 a rank, a standard of excellence (of the first class). 4 the system according to which people are divided into social groups. 5 one of these social groups (the upper class). vb to put in a class, to regard as being of a certain type (class him as being unfit for work).
classic (adjective)of the best kind or standard. n 1 a great writer or book. 2 pl the classics ancient Greek and Roman literature.
classical (adjective)1 classic. 2 having to do with ancient Greek and Roman literature, art, or customs.
Classical mechanicsstudy of motion of macroscopic objects (see list of branches of science)
classify (verb)to arrange in classes (classified the books as fiction or nonfiction). n classification
clatter (verb)to make rattling noises (clattered up the wooden stairs). n a rattling noise.
clause (noun)1 a group of words forming a part of a sentence. 2 a section of an agreement (a clause in the contract allowing either side to withdraw).
Claustrophobiafear of confined spaces (see list of phobias)
claustrophobia (noun)the fear of being confined in any small enclosed space.
claw (noun)1 the hooked nail of a bird or other animal. 2 a foot with such nails. vb to scratch or tear with claws or nails (clawed at his face with her nails).
clay (noun)a moist, formable earth that hardens when dried, used to make sculptures and pottery. adj clayey
clean (adjective)1 free from dirt (clean hands a clean record). 3 complete (a clean break). adv completely (the handle came away clean in my hand). vb to remove dirt, dust, etc, from (cleaned the dress cleen-er cleen-ness/.
cleanly (adjective)having clean habits (a cleanly animal). adv in a clean manner, neatly. n cleanliness
cleanse (verb)to make clean or pure (the soap cleansed her skin clenz-er/.
clear (adjective)1 easy to hear, see, or understand (a clear description). 2 bright (clear skies). 3 free from difficulties or obstacles (the way is now clear to go on with our plans). 4 obvious (a clear case of guilt). 5 transparent (the water was clear). vb 1 to make or become clear (the skies cleared). 2 to prove innocent (clearing his name). 3 to remove difficulties or obstacles from (clear the way). 4 to pass through or over (horse and rider cleared the fence). adv clearly.
clearance (noun)1 act of clearing (the clearance of trees/the clearance of goods from the shelves). 2 permission for something to be done (receive clearance from the boss). 3 the height or width of a passage (an underpass with a 13-foot clearance).
clearing (noun)an open part of a forest with no trees.
clef (noun)a mark to show the pitch in music.
cleft (noun)a crack, a split.
Cleisiophobiafear of being locked in an enclosed place (see list of phobias)
Cleithrophobiafear of being locked in an enclosed place (see list of phobias)
clench (verb)to press tightly together (clench your fist/clench your teeth).
Cleptophobiafear of stealing (see list of phobias)
clergy (noun)persons who are in charge of and who lead religious services: ministers, priests, rabbis, etc.
cleric (noun)a a member of the clergy.
clerical (adjective)1 having to do with the clergy. 2 having to do with a clerk (clerical work).
clerk (noun)an office employee doing written work.
clever (adjective)1 able to learn quickly. 2 able to think quickly. 3 able to do things well with the hands, skilful. adv cleverly. n cleverness.
clewCollective noun for worms (A clew of worms) (see list of collective nouns)
cliché (noun)a stock phrase in common use.
click (noun)a light, sharp sound (the click of her heels). Also vb.
client (noun)1 a customer. 2 someone who employs a member of some profession (a lawyer’s clients).
clientele (noun)all the clients of a professional or customers of a shopkeeper.
cliff (noun)a high, steep rock face.
Climacophobiafear of stairs, climbing, or of falling downstairs (see list of phobias)
climate (noun)the usual weather conditions of a place. adj climatic
Climatologystudy of climate (see list of branches of science)
climax (noun)the highest or most exciting point, the most dramatic moment (the climax of his career clie-mac-tic/.
climb (verb)1 to rise or ascend (the plane climb to its cruising height/the stock prices climbed over the weekend). 2 to go up using the feet and often the hands. n climber.
clinch (verb)1 to settle (clinched the deal). 2 in boxing, to stand so close that no strong punches may be given. Also n.
cling (verb)(pt, pp clung) 1 to stick to (mud clinging to her shoes). 2 to hold firmly to (clung to her mother’s skirt).
clinic (noun)a building or a part of a hospital for people needing special medical treatment or advice (a skin clinic). adj clinical.
clink (noun)a sharp, thin ringing sound. Also vb.
Clinologystudy of aging or individual decline after maturity (see list of branches of science)
Clinophobiafear of going to bed (see list of phobias)
clip1 (verb)(clipped , clipping ) to cut (clip the hedge). n 1 something that has been clipped. 2 a sharp blow.
clip2 (noun)a fastener (she put her hair up in a clip). vb (clipped, clipping) to fasten.
clipper (noun)1 an instrument for clipping (nail clippers). 2 a fast sailing ship.
clippingCollective noun for geldings (A clipping of geldings) (see list of collective nouns)
clique (noun)a small group of people who keep together, not mixing with others.
Clithrophobiafear of being locked in an enclosed place (see list of phobias)
cloak (noun)1 a loose outer garment. 2 something that hidesor covers. vb 1 to cover as with a cloak. 2 to conceal.
cloakroom (noun)1 a room where you can leave outer garments, packages, etc, in a public place.
clock (noun)an instrument for telling the time. vb to measure time (he clocked me running a mile in 8.27 minutes).
clockwise (adjective)going around in the direction of the hands of a clock.
clockwork (noun)machinery like that inside a mechanical clock. like clockwork regularly and smoothly.
clod (noun)1 a lump of earth. 2 a clumsy or stupid person.
clog (noun)1 a shoe with a wooden sole. 2 something that blocks or gets in the way of. vb (clogged , clogging ) to block or choke (clog the drains).
cloister (noun)1 a monastery or other place where religious people choose to be by themselves. 2 a covered walkway in a monastery, church, etc, that leads to a garden or courtyard. Also vb.
clone (noun)1 an animal or plant that has been produced or manufacturedfrom the cells of another and is, therefore, an exact copy. 2 a person or thing that is very like someone or something else (the teenagers all wear the same clothes and look like clones of each other). vb to produce an exact copy of an animal or plant from its own cells.
close1 (verb)1 to shut (close the gates). 2 to finish (close the meeting). 3 to bring or come near (his arms closed around her). n the end.
close2 (adjective)1 shut in. 2 stuffy (the air was close in the crowded hall). 3 near, not far (the station is quite close).
closet (noun)a large cupboard or small room in which clothes are kept. vb to shut up (closeted themselves in a private room).
closure (noun)(formal) closing, end (the closure of the factory).
clotCollective noun for cardiologists (A clot of cardiologists) (see list of collective nouns)
clot (noun)a soft lump formed on or in liquid (a clot of blood). vb (clotted , clotting ) 1 to form into clots. 2 to thicken.
cloth (noun)a material made by weaving threads of wool, cotton, etc.
clothe (verb)(pt, pp clothed or clad) to put clothes on (clothe herself in silk).
clothes (noun, plural)garments.
clothes pin (noun)a wooden or plastic clip that holds washed clothes on a line to dry (in Britain a clothes pin is called a clothes peg).
clothing (noun)garments (warm clothing).
cloudCollective noun for gnats (A cloud of gnats) (see list of collective nouns)
cloudCollective noun for grasshoppers (A cloud of grasshoppers) (see list of collective nouns)
cloud (noun)1 a mass of water vapor floating high in the sky. 2 a great many (a cloud of insects). 3 a cause of gloom or trouble (a cloud on their happiness). vb to darken. adj cloudy , cloudless
cloudburst (noun)a sudden, very heavy rainstorm.
clove (noun)1 a plant bud from a tree used as a spice. 2 a part of a bulb, such as garlic.
clover (noun)a three-leaved plant grown as food for cattle.
clowderCollective noun for cats (A clowder of cats) (see list of collective nouns)
clown (noun)1 a fool. 2 one who plays the fool to amuse others. vb to play the fool (boys clowning around).
club (noun)1 a heavy stick. 2 a golf stick. 3 a group of people who meet for a common purpose. 4 their meeting place (a golf club). 5 a place, usually one selling drinks, where people go to listen to music and dance. 6 pl a suit of playing cards. vb (clubbed , clubbing ) to beat with a club. go clubbing go to a club (sense 5).
cluck (noun)a low, sharp, clicking sound, like the sound made by a hen. Also vb.
clue (noun)a fact that, when understood, helps one to find the answer to a problem; a hint (police looking for clues/find a clue to her whereabouts).
clumpCollective noun for reeds (A clump of reeds) (see list of collective nouns)
clumpCollective noun for trees (A clump of trees) (see list of collective nouns)
clump (noun)a closely packed group, a cluster (a clump of trees). vb to walk heavily (clump angrily upstairs).
clumsy (adjective)1 awkward in movement, shape, etc (the clumsy person always dropped things). 2 badly done (a clumsy apology). n clumsiness adv clumsily.
clusterCollective noun for bombs (A cluster of bombs) (see list of collective nouns)
clusterCollective noun for churls (A cluster of churls) (see list of collective nouns)
clusterCollective noun for coconuts (A cluster of coconuts) (see list of collective nouns)
clusterCollective noun for computers (A cluster of computers) (see list of collective nouns)
clusterCollective noun for diamonds (A cluster of diamonds) (see list of collective nouns)
clusterCollective noun for knots (A cluster of knots) (see list of collective nouns)
clusterCollective noun for spiders (A cluster of spiders) (see list of collective nouns)
cluster (noun)a number of things growing very close together, a closely packed group (a cluster of grapes). vb to grow or stand close together.
clutchCollective noun for eggs (A clutch of eggs) (see list of collective nouns)
clutchCollective noun for families (A clutch of families) (see list of collective nouns)
clutchCollective noun for kleptomaniacs (A clutch of kleptomaniacs) (see list of collective nouns)
clutchCollective noun for mechanics (A clutch of mechanics) (see list of collective nouns)
clutchCollective noun for motorcyclists (A clutch of motorcyclists) (see list of collective nouns)
clutchCollective noun for testicles (A clutch of testicles) (see list of collective nouns)
clutchCollective noun for tomatoes (A clutch of tomatoes) (see list of collective nouns)
clutchCollective noun for wrestlers (A clutch of wrestlers) (see list of collective nouns)
clutch (verb)1 to seize (clutched the rope that was thrown). 2 to hold tightly (clutches her bag). n 1 a firm hold. 2 pl power, control (in the clutches of criminals). 3 eggs being hatched at one sitting. 4 in a car, a lever that puts an engine in or out of action. 5 a woman’s small handbag or purse.
clutter (verb)to fill or cover untidily (papers cluttering the desk). n an untidy mass.
cmabbreviation for centimeter.
Cnidophobiafear of stings (see list of phobias)
coach (noun)1 (old) a closed four-wheeled horse carriage. 2 a railway carriage. 3 a private teacher (they employed a coach to improve their son’s French). 4 one who trains athletes (an football coach). vb 1 to give private lessons (coach him in French). 2 to prepare (a person or a team) for a contest (coach the football players).
coal (noun)a black rock dug from a mine, used as fuel.
coalitionCollective noun for cheetahs (A coalition of cheetahs) (see list of collective nouns)
coalition (noun)1 a joining together. 2 the joining together of different political parties for a special purpose (a country ruled by a coalition).
coarse (adjective)1 rough (coarse material). 2 rude, vulgar, unrefined (a coarse sense of humour). adv coarsely n coarseness
coarsen (verb)to make coarse (hands coarsened by washing floors).
coast (noun)land next to the sea. vb 1 to sail alongside the coast. 2 to move without the use of power (coasting downhill in a car). 3 to go on without much effort (coast along without doing much). adj coastal
coast guard (noun)the coast police (an empty boat spotted by coast guards).
coastline (noun)the line of the coast or shore.
coat (noun)1 an outer garment with sleeves. 2 the natural cover of an animal (e.g. hair, wool, fur). 3 anything that covers (a coat of paint). vb to cover (cookies that were coated with chocolate).
coat of arms (noun)the design on a shield or badge representing a person, family, country, or organization.
coating (noun)a covering.
coax (verb)to get someone to do something by speaking kindly or petting.
cob (noun)1 a corncob. 2 a male swan. 3 a short-legged, thickset riding horse.
cobble (verb)1 (old) to mend (shoes) (he cobbled boots). 2 to mend or put together roughly (cobble together a makeshift table). n a cobblestone.
cobbler (noun)a mender of shoes.
cobblestone (noun)a rounded stone used to pave roads (Macondray Lane has cobblestones).
cobra (noun)a poisonous snake found in Africa and Asia which has loose skin behind its head that stiffens into a hood when the snake is excited, scared, or angry.
cobweb (noun)a spider’s web, usually one found in a house and that has collected dust.
cocaine (noun)a drug that deadens pain, but is very addictive and can be fatal.
cock (noun)1 a male bird. 2 a tap or faucet. 3 the hammer of a gun. vb 1 to turn upward, to tilt (cock his hat). 2 to raise, to cause to stand up (the dog cocked its ears). 3 (of a gun) to draw back the hammer before firing.
cockatoo (noun)a type of parrot.
cocker spaniel (noun)a small, long-haired, long-eared dog.
cockerel (noun)a young cock.
cockle (noun)a type of shellfish.
cockleshell (noun)1 the shell of the cockle. 2 a small, light boat.
cockpit (noun)1 (old) a pit in which cocks were made to fight each other. 2 the pilot’s place in an aircraft.
cockroach (noun)a kind of black beetle with long antennae and a flat body.
cocktailCollective noun for drugs (A cocktail of drugs) (see list of collective nouns)
cocktail (noun)a strong drink made by mixing an alcoholic drink with fruit juice, or other drinks.
cocky (adjective)absolutely sure, overconfident.
cocoa (noun)1 a powder made from cacao seeds. 2 a drink made from this powder; hot chocolate.
coconut (noun)the fruit of the coconut palm tree, with a white inside flesh covered in a brown husk surrounded by a hard shell.
coconut palm (noun)a tropical palm tree.
cocoon (noun)a silky case spun by many insects as they grow and transform, as from a caterpillar to a butterfly.
CODabbreviation for collect on delivery and cash on delivery, an arrangement whereby a person receiving a package must pay for it when they receive it.
cod (noun)a large sea fish.
coddle (verb)1 to pet, to treat with too much care (coddles her youngest child). 2 to cook gently (coddle eggs).
code (noun)1 a collection of laws, rules, or signals. 2 a method of sending secret messages by using signs, sounds, or words (try to decipher the message in code/the Morse code).
Codicologystudy of manuscripts (see list of branches of science)
coerce (verb)to make to do, to force (enemy soldiers coercing the villagers into providing them with food and shelter). n coercion adj coercive
coexist (verb)to live at the same time or in the same place with another, especially peacefully (the warring neighbors finally succeeded in coexisting happily). n coexistence
coffee (noun)a dark brown drink brewed from the roasted, ground seeds of the coffee tree or shrub.
coffin (noun)a box in which a dead body is put for burial.
coffleCollective noun for slaves (A coffle of slaves) (see list of collective nouns)
cogCollective noun for robots (A cog of robots) (see list of collective nouns)
cog (noun)the tooth of a wheel for receiving motion by fitting between the teeth of another wheel, as on the gears for a bicycle.
coherent (adjective)clear and logical (a coherent argument). n coherence
cohesion (noun)1 the force that holds the parts of a substance together. 2 coherence. adj cohesive
cohortCollective noun for epidemiologists (A cohort of epidemiologists) (see list of collective nouns)
coil (verb)to wind in a series of rings (a snake coiling itself around a tree). n a ring or rings into which a rope, etc, is wound.
Coimetrophobiafear of cemeteries (see list of phobias)
coin (noun)a metal piece of money. vb 1 to make money out of metal. 2 to invent (coin a word).
coinage (noun)1 the act of coining. 2 all coined money. 3 the coined money in use in a particular country. 4 a newly invented word.
coincide (verb)1 to happen at the same time (their arrival coincided with our departure). 2 to be in agreement (their opinions coincide).
coincidence (noun)the accidental happening of one event at the same time as another (it was a coincidence that we both arrived together). adj coincident , coincidental
Coitophobiafear of coitus. (see list of phobias)
coke (noun)coal, from which most of the gas has been extracted by heating, used as industrial fuel.
colander (noun)a strainer.
cold (adjective)1 not hot or warm (a cold day/cold food). 2 without emotion or excitement, unenthusiastic (his performance left me cold). 3 unfriendly (a cold welcome). n 1 absence of heat (cannot stand the cold). 2 an illness, usually consisting of a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, coughing, aches, and pains. (catch a cold).
cold-blooded (adjective)1 having a body temperature that depends on the environment, as fish, snakes, etc. 2 completely unfeeling, cruel (cold-blooded murder).
Coleopterologystudy of beetles and weevils (see list of branches of science)
collaborate (verb)1 to work together, especially in writing, study, art, or science (collaborating on a book). 2 to work with another to betray secrets, etc (collaborating with the enemy). n collaboration n collaborator
collapse (noun)1 a fall (the collapse of the bridge). 2 a sudden loss of consciousness. 3 a failure (the collapse of the firm/the collapse of the talks). vb 1 to fall down (the bridge collapsed). 2 to lose consciousness (collapsing in the extreme heat). 3 to fail completely (the company collapsed).
collar (noun)1 the part of the clothing that covers or surrounds the neck. 2 a strap or band put round the neck of an animal. vb (informal) to take hold of, to seize (police collaring criminals).
collards (noun, plural)a leafy vegetable similar to kale.
colleague (noun)a fellow worker.
collect (verb)1 to bring together (collect the glasses). 2 to come together (a crowd collected). 3 to gather and keep things of the same kind (collect stamps). 4 to obtain money by contributions (collecting for charity).
collected (adjective)1 gathered together. 2 calm, cool, in control.
collectionCollective noun for objects (A collection of objects) (see list of collective nouns)
collection (noun)1 act of collecting. 2 the things collected. 3 the gathering of money for a special purpose. n collector
collectiveCollective noun for nouns (A collective of nouns) (see list of collective nouns)
collective (adjective)taken as a whole, joint (our collective strength). n a collective enterprise, as a farm. adv collectively
collegeCollective noun for electors (A college of electors) (see list of collective nouns)
collegeCollective noun for physicians (A college of physicians) (see list of collective nouns)
college (noun)1 a society of learned or professional people that have certain duties (the electoral college). 2 a place of further education after high school, where one might obtain a bachelor’s or associate’s degree.
collide (verb)to run into, to strike against (collide with another car co-li-zhon/.
collie (noun)a long-haired dog with a long, narrow head, originally bred for herding sheep.
colloidCollective noun for chemists (A colloid of chemists) (see list of collective nouns)
colloquial (adjective)conversational, having to do with the spoken language of ordinary people (colloquial language).
colloquialism (noun)a popular expression.
collusion (noun)a secret agreement to do something wrong (witnesses acting in collusion to deceive the courts).
colon (noun)1 a mark of punctuation (:). 2 a part of the bowel, or lower intestine.
colonel (noun)a military officer.
colonial (adjective)1 having to do with a colony. 2 (often cap) having to do with the 13 British colonies that became the United States.
colonist (noun)a settler in a colony.
colonize (verb),also colonise (British spelling) to form or set up a colony in (the British colonized parts of Africa).
colonnade (noun)a row of columns or pillars.
colonyCollective noun for avocets (A colony of avocets) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for bats (A colony of bats) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for beavers (A colony of beavers) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for fungi (A colony of fungi) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for gulls (A colony of gulls) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for ibises (A colony of ibises) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for lepers (A colony of lepers) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for lice (A colony of lice) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for microbiologists (A colony of microbiologists) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for pelicans (A colony of pelicans) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for penguins (A colony of penguins) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for rabbits (A colony of rabbits) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for termites (A colony of termites) (see list of collective nouns)
colonyCollective noun for voles (A colony of voles) (see list of collective nouns)
colony (noun)1 a community of settlers in a new land. 2 the place in which they settle.
color (noun),also colour (British spelling) 1 a quality that objects have and that can be seen only when light falls on them (what color is her new dress?/bright colors such as red and yellow). 2 paint (watercolors). 3 redness (of the face) (brings color to her cheeks). 4 a skin color varying with race (was unliked because of the color of her skin). 5 brightness (a description full of color). 6 pl a flag. vb 1 to paint, to put color on or into (color the walls yellow). 2 to give interesting qualities to, to elaborate (the account she gave was colored by her imagination). 3 to affect (a view of life colored by childhood experiences). 4 to blush (coloring with embarrassment).
colorblind (adjective), also colourblind (British spelling) unable to see the difference between colors or certain colors (he is red-green colorblind).
colorful (adjective), also colourful (British spelling) 1 full of color, bright. 2 bright and interesting (he gave a very colorful account of his travels).
colorless (adjective), also colourless (British spelling) 1 without color (the landscape was colorless and bleak). 2 uninteresting (a colorless description).
colossal (noun)adj very big, gigantic (there is a colossal crane on the docks).
colt (noun)a young male horse or donkey (the mare and her colt were waiting at the gate).
columbine (noun)n a kind of wild flower of the buttercup family.
columnCollective noun for armoured cars (A column of armoured cars) (see list of collective nouns)
column (noun)1 a pillar used to support or ornament a building. 2 something similar in shape (a column of smoke). 3 a body of troops standing one behind the other in one or more lines. 4 a vertical row in a list, table or chart. 5 a narrow division of a page. adj columnar
columnist (noun)the writer of a regular series of articles for a newspaper or magazine.
coma (noun)a long-continuing state of being unconscious, or not awake or aware of one’s surroundings (in a coma after the head injury).
comatose (adjective)1 of, like, or in a coma. 2 (informal) very sleepy, drowsy (comatose after a large meal).
comb (noun)1 a toothed instrument for passing through and arranging hair, wool, etc. 2 the crest of a cock. vb to pass through or arrange with a comb.
combat (verb)(combated , combating ) to fight against, to try to defeat, destroy, etc (many drugs have been developed to combat disease). n a fight.
combatant (noun)one taking part in a fight. Also adj.
combative (adjective)liking to fight (in a combative mood).
combination (noun)1 a joining, a union (a combination of the new and the old/work in combination with overseas firms). 2 pl a one-piece undergarment covering the upper and lower body.
combine (verb)to join (he combines wit and skill/the two firms have combined).
combust (verb)to burn.
combustible (adjective)able to take light and burn easily.
combustion (noun)the process of burning.
come (verb)(pt came, pp come) to move toward (opposite of go). n coming. come across to discover (something) by accident (come across some valuable books in an old shop). come to pass (old or fml) to happen (it came to pass that they married).
comedian (noun)1 a performer who tells jokes, a comic. 2 one who is always trying to make others laugh. f comedienne
comedyCollective noun for errors (A comedy of errors) (see list of collective nouns)
comedy (noun)1 a light or amusing play with a happy ending. 2 an amusing happening, the amusing side of something (the comedy of the situation).
comely (adjective)(old or fml) pleasant-looking, graceful (a comely young woman). n comeliness
comet (noun)a bright heavenly body made up of frozen dust and gas that orbits the sun, seen only rarely, with a tail of light.
Cometologystudy of comets (see list of branches of science)
Cometophobiafear of comets (see list of phobias)
comfort (noun)1 the state of being free from anxiety, worry, pain, etc, and having all one’s physical needs satisfied; ease (a life of comfort). 2 something that satisfies one’s physical needs (all modern comforts). 3 strength, hope, sympathy, etc (offer comfort to the widow). 4 the cause of comfort to others (a comfort to her mother). vb to give comfort to (comfort the widow at the funeral); to cheer (someone) up.
comfortable (adjective)1 at ease, free from anxiety, worry, etc (I did not feel comfortable in her presence). 2 providing comfort, soft and restful, relaxing.
comforter (noun)1 someone who comforts. 2 (old) a quilted bed covering.
comic (adjective)1 having to do with comedy (a comic act). 2 amusing, laughable (a comic situation). Also n a booklet or magazine with a series of drawings that relate a humorous story or adventure.
comical (adjective)funny, amusing (you look comical in that funny hat).
comma (noun)a mark of punctuation (,).
command (verb)1 to order (command them to come at once). 2 to be in charge (of). 3 to control. 4 to overlook (a place) (command a view of the sea). n 1 an order. 2 mastery (his command of English is excellent).
commander (noun)1 an officer in charge of troops. 2 an officer in the navy.
commanding (adjective)arousing respect.
commandment (noun)an order, a law.
commemorate (verb)to make people remember something by holding a service or doing something special (commemorating those who died in the war). n commemoration
commence (verb)(formal) to begin. n commencement
commend (verb)1 to praise (her teaching was highly commended). 2 (formal) to recommend (I commend you to try the new restaurant).
commendable (adjective)deserving praise.
commendation (noun)praise.
comment (verb)1 to say something about, to remark on (friends commenting on her unhappiness). 2 to write notes in explanation of. n 1 a remark. 2 an explanation.
commentary (noun)1 a series of remarks or notes. 2 a spoken description of an event as it happens. running commentary a description of an event as it happens, given by an onlooker.
commentator (noun)1 one who comments. 2 the writer or speaker of a commentary.
commerce (noun)the buying and selling of goods, trade.
commercial (adjective)1 having to do with trade or commerce (commercial law). 2 profit-making (a commercial business). n a paid advertisement for radio or television.
commiserate (verb)to pity, to sympathize with (commiserate with her on her misfortune). n commiseration
commission (noun)1 act of committing. 2 an order for a work of art (receive a commission to paint the president’s portrait). 3 a group of people appointed to study and report on a particular matter (a commission to look into government spending). 4 money paid to someone who has helped to arrange a business deal (his commission for selling the painting/the commission paid by the writer to his agent). vb to give an order or request to, to appoint (commission him to paint a portrait).
commit (verb)(committed, committing) 1 to perform or do, especially something illegal (commit a crime). 2 to make a definite agreement that one will do something (commit oneself to raising $1000 for the charity). 3 to give (someone) into care (he committed his brother to a mental hospital). 4 (formal) to put in or on (commit the facts to paper).
commitment (noun)1 the act of committing (the commitment of facts to paper). 2 a promise, a duty, a responsibility (family commitments). 3 state of being devoted (looking for someone with commitment to his work).
committee (noun)a group of people appointed from a larger body to manage its affairs or perform a particular duty (the prom committee).
commodity (noun)(often pl) anything bought and sold, a useful thing (household commodities).
common (adjective)1 belonging to everyone, of no special rank or quality (their common desire to be free). 2 found everywhere (a common wild flower). 3 ordinary (a common member of the public). 4 frequent (a common occurrence). 5 rough, regarded as being low class (regarded as common because of her dress and speech). n land belonging to or open to the community (common ground).
common denominator (noun)a denominator shared by two or more fractions.
common sense (noun)practical knowledge of how to act in everyday matters (brilliant but with little common sense).
commonplace (noun)a well-known remark, an ordinary or unoriginal remark. adj ordinary, not regarded as special (a commonplace speech).
commonwealth (noun)1 a state in which everyone has a say in the type of government. 2 a group of states united by certain common interests.
commotionCollective noun for coots (A commotion of coots) (see list of collective nouns)
commotion (noun)confused movement, disorder (awakened by a commotion in the street).
communal (adjective)shared by all (a communal changing room).
commune (verb)(formal) to talk together (with), to exchange thoughts or feelings with (claims he can commune with plants).
communicable (adjective)1 able to be passed to others (a communicable disease). 2 able to be communicated or explained to others (ideas only communicable to experts).
communicant (noun)one who receives Holy Communion, a religious ceremony practiced in some Christian churches.
communicate (verb)1 to make known to, to tell (communicate the facts to her). 2 to get in touch with (communicate with each other by phone). 3 to make information, ideas, feelings, etc, clearly known to others (you need to be able to communicate in this job). 4 to pass (something) to another (communicate a disease).
communication (noun)1 a message (receive a secret communication). 2 a means of communicating (telephone communications).
communicative (adjective)talkative, ready to give information (find the witnesses not very communicative).
communion (noun)the act of sharing. Holy Communion a religious ceremony practiced in some Christian churches.
communism (noun)the belief in an economic system that is based on all property being owned by the whole community and not by the individual.
communist (noun)a believer in communism. adj communistic
community (noun)the whole body of the people living in a town, district, country, etc (the mining disaster affected the whole community).
commute (verb)1 to travel daily from the place where one lives to the place where one works (commute by rail). 2 to change into something less unpleasant (commute the death sentence to one of life imprisonment). adj commutable n commutation
commuter (noun)one who commutes (commuters affected by the rail strike).
compact (adjective)1 tightly packed, firm (a compact mass of sand). 2 fitted neatly together in a small space (a compact kitchen). 3 short, concise (a compact account of the events cum-pact-ness/.
compact disc (noun)a small, hard, plastic disc on which sound or information is recorded in a form readable by a laser, often called CD.
companion (noun)1 a friend, a person, etc, who regularly accompanies another (his dog was his constant companion/miss his companions at the club). 2 one who goes with or accompanies (her companion on her walk). 3 a person employed to live with someone and keep him or her company (the old lady’s companion). 4 one of a matching pair or set of things (the companion to this volume). n companionship.
companionable (adjective)liking company (companionable people missing a social life).
companionway (noun)stairs on a ship from deck to cabin.
companyCollective noun for archer fish (A company of archer fish) (see list of collective nouns)
companyCollective noun for archers (A company of archers) (see list of collective nouns)
companyCollective noun for fools (A company of fools) (see list of collective nouns)
companyCollective noun for moles (A company of moles) (see list of collective nouns)
companyCollective noun for parrots (A company of parrots) (see list of collective nouns)
companyCollective noun for widgeon (A company of widgeon) (see list of collective nouns)
company (noun)1 a number of people gathered together by chance or invitation (tell the company to help themselves). 2 being together with another or others (enjoy his company). 3 a group of persons who have put together money to run a business. 4 a group of people working together (a theatrical company). 5 a body of soldiers commanded by a captain. 6 the crew of a ship.
comparable (adjective)1 able to be compared (a comparable job). 2 nearly or just as good as (a book that is comparable with the greatest novels).
comparative (adjective)judged alongside something else, relative (comparative luxury).
compare (verb)1 to consider things together to see how they are alike and different (compare the two accounts of the accident). 2 to point out the likeness and difference between (compare his novels to those of Dickens).
comparison (noun)1 act of comparing (a small city in comparison with New York). 2 likeness, similarity (no comparison between fresh food and frozen).
compartment (noun)1 a part (e.g. of a drawer) divided off from the rest. 2 one of the small rooms in a railway carriage.
compass (noun)1 a direction-finding instrument containing a magnetic needle that always points north. 2 (formal) full extent or range (not within the compass of his power). 3 pl compasses an instrument for drawing circles, consisting of two pointed legs connected at one end.
compassion (noun)pity, deep sympathy (show compassion for the refugees).
compassionate (adjective)feeling or showing pity or deep sympathy.
compatible (adjective)1 able to exist together peacefully (husbands and wivse should be compatible). 2 in agreement with (their accounts of the accident are not compatible).
compatriot (noun)a person from the same country.
compel (verb)(compelled, compelling) to make to do, to force (compel him to pay his share). adj compelling very interesting, attractive.
compendium (noun)a summary containing the important aspects of a subject (a compendium of sport).
compensate (verb)1 to give something to make up for harm or injury done (compensate him for his injury at work). 2 to undo or counteract the effect of a disadvantage, loss, etc (her aunt’s love compensated for her parents’ neglect).
compensation (noun)something given to make up for harm or injury.
compete (verb)1 to try to do better than one’s fellows in work, games, etc (two teams competing for a place in the final/two firms competing for a government grant). 2 to take part in the hope of winning (a record number of teams competing).
competence, compotency (noun)1 ability, skill (no one doubts his competence as a statesman). 2 (old) a sufficient amount of money to live on.
competent (adjective)1 good at one’s job (a competent teacher). 2 well done (a competent job). 3 (formal) having the necessary powers (a court not competent to deal with the matter). adv competently
competition (noun)1 the act of competing, rivalry (a lot of competition for the post of manager). 2 a contest for which a prize is offered (enter the golf competition). 3 people competing for a prize, etc (the competition is very strong).
competitive (adjective)encouraging competition or rivalry (a competitive industry).
competitor (noun)1 one who competes (line up the competitors in the race). 2 a rival (a shop charging less than its rivals).
compile (verb)to collect facts and figures, etc, and put together in an orderly form. n compiler n compilation
complacence, complacency (noun)satisfaction, especially self-satisfaction, smugness.
complacent (adjective)smug, satisfied with oneself and one’s actions etc (he’s complacent about his position as champion but there are many new young players in the competition).
complain (verb)1 to grumble (complaining about the cold weather). 2 to say that one is not satisfied (complain to the manager about the faulty goods).
complainant (noun)one who accuses another of an offence against the law.
complaint (noun)1 a grumble (complaints about the weather). 2 an expression of dissatisfaction (write a letter of complaint to the manager). 3 an illness (childhood complaints). 4 an accusation (lodge a complaint against his noisy neighbor).
complaisant (adjective)agreeable, ready to please (a complaisant husband). n complaisance
complement (noun)1 that which completes (a good dessert is a complement to a good dinner). 2 the number or quantity needed to make something complete (have their full complement of office staff).
complementary (adjective)adding what is necessary to make complete (a dessert that is complementary to a dinner/a complementary amount).
complete (adjective)1 finished (a task that will soon be complete). 2 whole (a complete set of Shakespeare’s plays). 3 perfect (a complete gentleman). vb 1 to finish (complete the task). 2 to make whole (complete their happiness). n completion
complexCollective noun for psychologists (A complex of psychologists) (see list of collective nouns)
complex (adjective)1 having many parts (complex machinery). 2 not simple (a complex plan). n 1 a group of connected or similar things (a shopping complex/a leisure complex). 2 an abnormal mental state, often caused by past experiences or suppressed desires or fears, that influences a person’s behavior (an inferiority complex).
complexion (noun)the color, texture, and general appearance of the skin, especially the face.
complexity (noun)1 the state of being complex. 2 difficulty (the complexity of the situation).
compliant (adjective)giving in easily to others (so compliant that everyone takes advantage of him). n compliance a disposition to yield to or comply with others. See also comply.
complicate (verb)to make difficult (it will complicate matters if we travel separately).
complicated (adjective)1 difficult to understand (a complicated problem). 2 confusing because of having many parts (a complicated machine).
complication (noun)1 a confused state of affairs. 2 an event or fact that makes things difficult.
complicity (noun)helping to do something wrong (accused of complicity in the robbery).
compliment (noun)1 praise, a flattering remark (pay her a compliment on her appearance). 2 pl (formal) good wishes (compliments of the season/free dessert with the compliments of the owner). vb to praise, to express admiration.
complimentary (adjective)1 flattering, showing admiration (complimentary remarks). 2 free (complimentary tickets).
comply (verb)1 to agree to (complying with their request). 2 to obey (complied with the rules). n compliance.
component (noun)a part necessary to the whole object (car components). Also adj.
comport (verb)(formal) to behave (comport oneself with dignity).
compose (verb)1 to make up by putting together. 2 to write (compose a poem/compose a piece of music). 3 to calm (take time to compose oneself).
composed (adjective)calm.
composer (noun)one who writes music.
composite (adjective)made up of several parts (a composite picture painted by all the children).
composition (noun)1 act of putting together. 2 the arrangement of parts to form a pleasing whole (studying the composition of the chemical). 3 the thing composed or written (a composition for violins). 4 a mixture (a chemical composition).
compost (noun)rotting vegetable matter, etc, used as a fertilizer (a compost heap).
composure (noun)calmness.
compote (noun)preserved or stewed fruit (compote and cream for dessert).
compound1 (verb)1 to put together, to mix (a painkiller compounded of two chemicals). 2 to increase greatly (the usual difficulties compounded by bad weather conditions). adj made up of two or more parts (a compound substance). n a mixture of two or more substances.
compound2 (noun)an enclosed space with a building or buildings in it.
comprehend (verb)1 to understand (unable to comprehend his attitude). 2 (formal) to include (his estate comprehends all the land from the sea to the castle).
comprehensible (adjective)able to be understood (he was so upset that his speech was scarcely comprehensible).
comprehension (noun)the power of understanding (beyond our comprehension).
comprehensive (adjective)taking in as much as possible (a comprehensive survey).
compress (verb)to press together into a smaller space (compress all his belongings into a very small case com-press com-pre-shun/.
comprise (verb)to be made up of (a committee comprising only women/a house comprising three bedrooms, three public rooms, a bathroom, and a kitchen).
compromiseCollective noun for mediators (A compromise of mediators) (see list of collective nouns)
compromise (verb)1 to reach agreement by giving way on certain points (we couldn’t agree on a vacation destination so we both had to compromise and choose somewhere acceptable to both of us). 2 to leave open to suspicion or criticism (politicians compromising themselves by accepting hospitality from business firms). n an agreement reached when each party gives way on certain points.
compulsion (noun)1 force (they left only under compulsion). 2 an irresistible urge (a sudden compulsion to run away).
compulsory (adjective)forced, compelled (the wearing of a school uniform is compulsory/compulsory safety helmets).
compunction (noun)regret, feeling of guilt (feel no compunction about leaving work early).
compute (verb)(formal) to calculate or estimate (compute the likely cost). n computation
computer (noun)an electronic machine capable of storing and processing large amounts of information and of doing calculations.
computer graphics (noun, plural)artwork or design that is created on a computer.
Computer sciencestudy of processes that interact with data (see list of branches of science)
computer-aided design (noun)the use of a computer to create plans and drawings.
computerize (verb), also computerisation (British spelling)1 to store (information) on a computer (begin to computerize hospital records) 2 to use computers to do the work connected with something (production at the factory has now been fully computerized). n computerization
comrade (noun)a friend, a companion.
comradeship (noun)good fellowship.
con1 (verb)(conned, conning) to deceive, to trick (con him into lending her money).
con2 (noun)a reason, vote, or position in opposition (make a list of the pros and cons).
concatenationCollective noun for orgiasts (A concatenation of orgiasts) (see list of collective nouns)
concave (adjective)hollow, curved inward (like a bowl).
conceal (verb)to hide, to keep from others (conceal the money/conceal his feelings).
concealment (noun)act of concealing.
concede (verb)1 to admit as true (conceding that we may be wrong). 2 to give up (conceded his right to a part of his father’s estate). n concession.
conceit (noun)1 too high an opinion of oneself. 2 (formal) a fanciful or imaginative idea (a poem full of conceits).
conceited (adjective)too proud of oneself, vain (so conceited that she couldn’t imagine losing the contest).
conceivable (adjective)able to be thought of or imagined (it was hardly conceivable that they were still alive).
conceive (verb)1 to grasp clearly with the mind. 2 to imagine. 3 to become pregnant.
concentrate (verb)1 to bring together to one point. 2 to bring all the powers of the mind to bear on. 3 to make a substance stronger by reducing its volume. 4 to pack tightly. n a concentrated substance. n concentration
concentric (adjective)having the same centre (concentric circles).
concept (noun)a general idea (scientific concepts). adj conceptual
conception (noun)1 act of conceiving. 2 an idea.
concern (verb)1 to have to do with (the problem concerns all of us). 2 to take interest (concern themselves in other people’s business). 3 (formal) to be anxious about (his absence concerned us). n 1 an affair (his financial concerns). 2 interest (of little concern to other people). 3 anxiety (the invalid’s condition is giving cause for concern). 4 a business (a profitable concern).
concerning (preposition)having to do with, about (problems concerning work).
concert (noun)a musical entertainment.
concerted (adjective)planned together, worked out together (a concerted effort).
concertina (noun)a musical wind instrument similar to an accordian but with buttons instead of a keyboard.
concerto (noun)a musical composition for a solo player accompanied by an orchestra.
concession (noun)1 the act of giving up (the concession of his claim to his father’s estate). 2 a thing conceded, a favor (he always wore jeans, but as a concession to his mother he agreed to wear a suit to the wedding).
conch (noun)the large, spiral seashell of certain shellfish.
Conchologystudy of shells (see list of branches of science)
conciliate (verb)1 (formal) to make less angry or more friendly (try to conciliate her by bringing her some flowers). 2 to create peace between (conciliate the two parties in the argument).
conciliation (noun)the bringing together in peace or friendship of those who have quarreled (attempts at conciliation between the two sides).
conciliatory (adjective)calming, peace-making (some conciliatory words).
concise (adjective)short and to the point, brief (a concise account of the events). n conciseness
conclaveCollective noun for cardinals (A conclave of cardinals) (see list of collective nouns)
conclave (noun)1 in Roman Catholicism, the meeting of cardinals to choose a new pope. 2 a meeting held in private (a meeting in conclave).
conclude (noun)1 (formal) to end, to bring to an end (conclude the meeting). 2 to arrange, to settle on (concluding an agreement). 3 to come to believe after consideration of the facts (after hearing the evidence, we conclude that he is guilty).
conclusion (noun)1 (formal) end (at the conclusion of the meeting). 2 the idea finally reached after thinking something out (come to the conclusion that he was innocent).
conclusive (adjective)convincing, putting an end to doubt (conclusive evidence).
concoct (verb)1 to make by mixing (concocting something for dinner). 2 to make up, invent (concocted an excuse for being late).
concoction (noun)something, such as food or drink, made by mixing several things.
concomitant (adjective)(formal) accompanying, going together (an important job and its concomitant responsibilities). Also n.
concord (noun)(formal) 1 agreement (little concord among the committee members). 2 peace and friendship (neighboring countries living in concord).
concordance (noun)1 agreement. 2 an alphabetical list of the most important words used in a book or by a writer and exactly where they can be found.
concordat (noun)a treaty, a formal agreement.
concourse (noun)1 a large, open space for people (the railway station concourse). 2 (formal) a gathering, a crowd.
concrete (adjective)1 solid, having a real bodily existence (unlike an idea) (concrete evidence). 2 definite (no concrete plans). n a mixture of cement, sand, and gravel with water.
concur (verb)(concurred , concurring ) 1 to happen at the same time. 2 to agree (we concurred with their plans).
concurrence (noun)1 happening together at the same place. 2 (formal) agreement (the concurrence of their opinions).
concurrent (adjective)1 in agreement. 2 happening at the same time (concurrent events con-cur-ent-lee/.
concussion (noun)1 a violent shaking. 2 an injury that affects the function of an organ, especially the brain, as a result of a violent blow or impact (had a concussion when he fell on the concrete floor).
condemn (verb)1 to blame. 2 to find guilty. 3 to name a punishment for a guilty person. n condemnation
condemnatory (adjective)laying the blame on.
condense (verb)1 to make shorter or smaller (condense his original speech into a few sentences). 2 to make a substance more solid (e.g. to change vapor into liquid). n condensation
condescend (verb)to descend to the level, regarded as lower, of the person or people with whom one is dealing, usually in an ungracious, proud manner (she condescended to speak to the workers). adj condescending n condescension
condiment (noun)a seasoning, sauce, or relish eaten with food to bring out its flavor or enhance its taste (salt and pepper and other condiments).
condition (noun)1 state (furniture in poor condition he can go on condition that he reports to the police).
conditional (adjective)depending on something else happening (a conditional acceptance to university/an acceptance to the university conditional on his passing his exams).
condolence (noun)(often pl) expression of sympathy (please express our condolences to the widow).
condone (verb)to forgive, to pardon, to overlook a wrong (they condoned his bad behavior because of his unhappy home life).
condor (noun)a large vulture with black feathers, a bald head and neck, and soft, white feathers at the base of the neck.
conducive (adjective)helping to produce, leading (circumstances not conducive to good health).
conduct (verb)1 to lead, to guide (conduct us to our seats). 2 to carry (pipes conducting water). 3 to direct (conducted the orchestra). 4 (formal) to behave (conduct oneself well). n behavior.
conductor (noun)1 the director of an orchestra. 2 the person who takes the fares on a bus. 3 a substance that passes on heat or electricity to something else. f conductress
conduit (noun)1 a pipe or channel made to carry fluids. 2 tubing or piping that protects electric wires.
cone (noun)1 a figure with a circular base and a pointed top. 2 the fruit of pines and firs. 3 any object shaped like a cone (an ice-cream cone).
confection (noun)1 the process of making something by mixing. 2 candy or other sweet treat.
confectionary (adjective)of or like a confection, of confectioners or their work.
confectioner (noun)a person whose work is making or selling candy and sweets.
confectionery (noun)1 candy or other sweet treats. 2 the business or work of a confectioner. 3 a candy store.
confederacyCollective noun for dunces (A confederacy of dunces) (see list of collective nouns)
confederate (adjective)joined together by agreement or common purpose (confederate nations). n 1 a supporter, a helper, often in wrongdoing (the bully and his confederates). 2 (cap) a Southern supporter of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War (1860–1865).
confederation (noun)a group of states or nations that have agreed to act together.
confer (verb)(conferred, conferring) 1 to talk together (conferring over the plans). 2 to give (confer an honor on him).
conference (noun)a meeting held to discuss matters (an international conference on the environment).
confess (verb)to own up, to admit fault or guilt (confess to the crime/confess one’s sins).
confession (noun)the act of confessing, an account of the wrong one has done (make a confession to the police).
confessional (noun)in a Roman Catholic Church, the small room where a priest hears confessions.
confessor (noun)1 a person who confesses. 2 in the Roman Catholic Church, a priest who hears confessions.
confetti (noun)small pieces of colored paper thrown during celebrations.
confidant (noun)a person trusted with a secret. f confidante.
confide (verb)to give or tell something to a person one trusts (confide her personal problems to a friend/confide in a friend).
confidence (noun)1 trust (gain his confidence). 2 belief in one’s own abilities (lose one’s confidence).
confident (adjective)having no fear of failure (confident competitors con-fi-dent-lee/.
confidential (adjective)1 trusted (a confidential secretary). 2 secret (confidential information). adv confidentially
confiding (adjective)trusting (a confiding nature).
configuration (noun)(formal) shape that is determined by the arrangement of various parts.
configure (verb)to arrange in a certain way.
confine (verb)1 to shut up (confine prisoners in a cell). 2 to keep within limits (confine yourself to subjects that you know about). n a limit, a boundary.
confinement (noun)1 imprisonment (sentenced to a confinement of five years). 2 childbirth.
confirm (verb)1 to say that something is undoubtedly certain or true (confirm her alibi). 2 to give final approval to (confirmed his appointment as governor).
confirmation (noun)1 proof (receive confirmation of his innocence). 2 the ceremony by which one becomes a full member of certain churches.
confirmed (adjective)settled, habitual (a confirmed bachelor).
confiscate (verb)to seize a person’s private property, especially as a punishment (officials confiscating illegal drugs con-fi-skay-shun/.
conflagrant (adjective)burning.
conflagrationCollective noun for fireflies (A conflagration of fireflies) (see list of collective nouns)
conflagration (noun)(formal) a big, destructive fire.
conflict (noun)1 a state of disagreement (unions in conflict with management). 2 a fight (armed conflict). vb to disagree, to clash (modern ideas that conflict with traditional ones).
conflicting (adjective)1 going against each other, fighting, or quarrelling (on conflicting sides). 2 clashing, disagreeing (conflicting opinions).
confluence (noun)1 a flowing together. 2 the meeting of streams. adj confluent
conform (verb)1 to act or think like most other people, to accept the laws and practices of the time or place (people who want to rebel don’t conform to society). 2 to obey, to be in accordance with (conform to school rules/conform to safety standards).
conformation (noun)the way in which a thing is put together; shape (the conformation of the crystal).
conformity (noun)1 behavior, attitudes, etc, that are the same as most people’s. 2 agreement, obedience (in conformity with the law/not in conformity with safety standards).
confound (verb)1 to defeat completely. 2 to confuse, to mix up.
confront (verb)to meet face to face (confront the enemy con-fron-tay-shun/.
confuse (verb)1 to put into disorder, to muddle (confuse the arrangements/confuse the argument). 2 to puzzle, to bewilder (confused by the questions on the form). 3 to mistake one person or thing for another (confuse the two sisters).
confusion (noun)1 disorder (a room in total confusion). 2 puzzlement, bewilderment (confusion over the meaning of the word).
confute (verb)to prove (someone) wrong, to prove untrue (confute their argument con-fyu-tay-shun/.
congeal (verb)1 to become thick by cooling or freezing. 2 to become solid and stiff (blood congeals).
congenial (adjective)1 having the same likes and dislikes (a congenial companion). 2 pleasing (a congenial climate).
congenital (adjective)existing from birth (a congenital brain defect).
conger (noun)a saltwater eel with a long fin on its back, sharp teeth, and powerful jaws.
congeriesCollective noun for wizards (A congeries of wizards) (see list of collective nouns)
congested (adjective)1 overcrowded (congested roads). 2 too full of blood or mucus (congested arteries con-jess-chun/.
conglomerateCollective noun for geologists (A conglomerate of geologists) (see list of collective nouns)
conglomerate (adjective)stuck together in a lump. n 1 a cluster. 2 a rock made up of different kinds of pebbles sticking together. 3 a large corporation formed by merging several different firms (an international conglomerate).
conglomeration (noun)a mixed collection (a conglomeration of old toys).
congratulate (verb)to express pleasure at another’s success, a happy event, etc (congratulate him on getting onto the football team con-gra-chu-lay-shun con-gra-chu-la-tore-ree/.
congregate (verb)to meet, to form a crowd (the people congregated in the town hall).
congregationCollective noun for alligators (A congregation of alligators) (see list of collective nouns)
congregationCollective noun for churchgoers (A congregation of churchgoers) (see list of collective nouns)
congregationCollective noun for plovers (A congregation of plovers) (see list of collective nouns)
congregationCollective noun for worshipers (A congregation of worshipers) (see list of collective nouns)
congregation (noun)a gathering of people, especially at a church service.
congress (noun)1 a formal meeting of statesmen, etc, to settle certain questions. 2 Congress the part of the government that makes laws, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. adj congressional
congruent (adjective)suitable, agreeing (behavior congruent with his position). n congruity
congruous (adjective)suitable, agreeing (punishment congruous with the crime).
conic, conical (adjective)cone-shaped.
conifer (noun)a cone-bearing tree. adj coniferous
conjectural (adjective)due to guesswork, not certain (opinions that are purely conjectural).
conjecture (verb)to guess, to suppose. n guess.
conjoin (verb)(formal) to join, unite (conjoin in marriage).
conjoint (adjective)(formal) joined, united. adv conjointly
conjugal (adjective)having to do with marriage or the relationship between husband and wife (conjugal bonds).
conjugate1 adj joined, especially in a pair, coupled. 2 vb to give the forms (i.e. mood, tense, person, etc) of a verb. n conjugation
conjunctionCollective noun for grammarians (A conjunction of grammarians) (see list of collective nouns)
conjunction (noun)1 a connection. 2 in grammar, a joining word, such as “and,” “but,” “or.” adj conjunctive
conjuncture (noun)(formal) a combination of events or situations, especially one causing difficulties (a depressing conjuncture in their lives).
conjure (verb)1 to do magic; to do tricks so quickly and skillfully that the onlooker cannot see how they are done. 2 to summon, to cause to appear as if by magic.
conjurer or conjuror (noun)one who entertains by doing tricks, one who performs magic (the little girl had a conjuror at her birthday party).
connect (verb)1 to join (connect the two pipes). 2 to see that a thing or idea is related to another, to associate in the mind (he didn’t connect the middle-aged woman with the girl he used to know/the police are connecting the two murders). well-connected related to important or powerful people.
connection (noun)1 something that joins (a loose connection between the two pipes). 2 a relation by blood or marriage. 3 something that makes one think of a certain person, place, event, etc, when one sees another (police making a connection between the crimes).
Connectomicsstudy of connectomes (see list of branches of science)
connive (verb)1 to pretend not to see wrongdoing (her parents connived at the girl’s truancy) 2 to cooperate secretly with someone, especially in wrongdoing. n connivance
connoisseur (noun)one with expert knowledge of something and the ability to tell what is bad from what is good (a connoisseur of opera).
connotation (noun)what is suggested by a word in addition to its actual meaning (“armchair” has connotations of comfort).
connote (verb)to suggest in addition to the actual meaning (the word “plump” usually connotes cheerfulness).
connubial (adjective)(formal) having to do with marriage or married life (connubial bliss).
conquer (verb)1 to win by war (conquer the neighboring state). 2 to defeat (conquer the enemy cong-ke-ror/.
conquest (noun)1 the act of conquering. 2 a thing gained by force.
conscience (noun)one’s sense of right and wrong (she had a bad conscience about her treatment of her friend).
conscientious (adjective)careful to do one’s duty (conscientious pupils). n conscientiousness conscientious objector one who, in war, refuses to fight because he or she believes it is wrong to do so.
conscious (adjective)1 knowing what is going on around one (badly hurt but still conscious). 2 aware (conscious that he was being watched). n consciousness
conscript (noun)one made by law to serve in the armed services.
conscription (noun)the act of making people serve in the armed services by law.
Consecotaleophobiafear of chopsticks (see list of phobias)
consecrate (verb)1 to make holy (consecrate a new church). 2 to devote, to set apart (consecrate his life to helping others). n consecration
consecutive (adjective)following one after the other, in order (on consecutive days).
consensus (noun)general agreement (fail to reach a consensus on the issue).
consent (verb)to agree, to give one’s permission (he consented to the operation). n agreement, permission.
consequence (noun)1 a result, an effect (have to face the consequences of their actions). 2 importance (matters of no consequence).
consequent (adjective)(formal) following, resulting (his illness and consequent death).
consequential (adjective)1 following upon. 2 self-important.
conservatism (noun)dislike of changes, especially in the way of governing.
conservative (adjective)1 disliking change. 2 moderate, cautious, safe.
conservatory (noun)1 a room enclosed in glass often for showing or growing plants; a greenhouse. 2 a school of fine arts, usually music.
conserve (verb)1 to keep something as it is (conserving the environment). 2 to keep from being wasted or spoiled (conserved our supplies). n fruits preserved in sugar, a kind of jam. n conservation
consider (verb)1 to think about (consider what’s best to do). 2 to think seriously (take time to consider before acting). 3 to take into account (consider the effect on others). 4 to regard as (considered him a hero).
considerable (adjective)fairly large, great (a considerable amount of money/considerable influence).
considerate (adjective)thoughtful for others.
consideration (noun)1 serious thought (give consideration to her future). 2 thought for others and their feelings (show consideration to elderly people). 3 a payment or reward (do the work for a consideration).
considering (preposition)allowing for.
consign (verb)(formal) 1 to deliver to, to put in the care of another (consign the body to the grave). 2 to send (goods consigned to you by rail).
consignment (noun)the goods sent (a consignment of drugs found by police).
consist (verb)to be made up of (a stew that consists of beef and vegetables).
consistency (noun)1 degree of thickness or density of liquids (the consistency of the jam). 2 the quality of being consistent.
consistent (adjective)1 fixed, having a regular pattern (show consistent improvement). 2 agreeing with (action consistent with the company’s policy/a statement not consistent with the previous one). 3 always thinking or acting on the same principles (the judge’s punishments are harsh but he is always consistent).
consolation (noun)1 comfort (the recent rains may bring some consolation to those who have suffered during the drought). 2 a person or thing that brings comfort in sorrow or sadness (the new baby was a consolation to the unhappy family).
console1 (verb)to comfort (she was consoled by her mother). adj consolatory
console2 (noun)a unit, e.g. between the two front seats in a car, containing switches and other electronic controls.
consolidate (verb)1 to make solid or firm, to strengthen (consolidating your present position). 2 to unite or combine into a single whole, to merge (consolidated four small firms into one large one). n consolidation
consolidationCollective noun for pulmonologists (A consolidation of pulmonologists) (see list of collective nouns)
consonance (noun)(formal) agreement.
consonant (noun)a speech sound or letter other than a vowel. adj in agreement with.
consort (noun)a partner, a husband or wife (the gentleman’s consort). vb consort (formal) to go out together, to associate with (object to his daughter consorting with criminals).
consortiumCollective noun for octopuses (A consortium of octopuses) (see list of collective nouns)
conspicuous (adjective)easily seen, very noticeable (she was conspicuous in her red coat).
conspiracy (noun)1 a coming together to plan wrongdoing (arrested on charges of conspiracy). 2 a plot (he uncovered a conspiracy to kill the king).
conspire (verb)1 to plan secretly together to do something wrong or unlawful (terrorists conspiring to bring down the government). 2 to unite (events that conspired to bring about his ruin). n conspirator
constant (adjective)1 never stopping (constant noise con-stan-see/.
constantly (adverb)1 again and again, nearly always, regularly (children constantly nagging). 2 without stopping (lights burning constantly).
constellation (noun)a group of stars, usually named for an object or animal that it resembles.
consternationCollective noun for mothers (A consternation of mothers) (see list of collective nouns)
consternation (noun)great surprise, dismay (to our great consternation our team lost).
constipated (adjective)having difficulty in clearing the bowels.
constipation (noun)a condition in which clearing the bowels is difficult.
constituencyCollective noun for voters (A constituency of voters) (see list of collective nouns)
constituency (noun)the people of a district who vote for a representative.
constituent (adjective)being part of, forming (the constituent parts of the machine). n 1 a necessary part (a constituent of the chemical compound). 2 a member of a constituency (a meeting of the politician’s constituents).
constitute (verb)1 (formal) to be (his dismissal constitutes a breach of the rules). 2 to make up, to form (twelve months constitute one year/five people constitute the committee).
constitution (noun)1 the way something is made up (the constitution of the committee). 2 the general health of the body (have a strong constitution). 3 the body of law with which a country is governed. 4 (cap) the document containing the fundamental laws and rights of the citizens of the United States.
constitutional (adjective)having to do with the laws of a country. n (old) a short walk taken to improve the health.
constrain (verb)to force, to compel (you must not feel constrained to go/I feel constrained to write and complain).
constraint (noun)1 force, compulsion (leave only under constraint). 2 a limit (no constraints on your freedom). 3 strained manner, lack of friendliness (aware of a certain constraint between the two people).
constrict (verb)1 to make smaller or narrower, to make tight (a drug constricting blood vessels). 2 to prevent free movement (constricted by lack of money). n constriction
constrictor (noun)a large snake that crushes its prey.
construct (verb)1 to build (construct a new building). 2 to make by putting the parts together (construct an idea).
construction (noun)1 act of constructing. 2 the thing constructed (a large construction). 3 the way of arranging words to give a certain meaning. 4 (formal) meaning (what construction do you put on his statement?).
constructive (adjective)useful and helpful (constructive criticism).
construe (verb)1 to translate into another language. 2 to explain, to interpret (construing his remark as an insult).
consul (noun)a person appointed to look after the interests of his or her country in a foreign country.
consular (adjective)having to do with a consul.
consulate (noun)the office of a consul.
consult (verb)1 to ask advice, information, or help from (consult a doctor). 2 to discuss matters with (consult his partners). 3 to look up (consult a dictionary). n consultation
consultant (noun)one able to advise, especially a doctor who is an expert in a particular branch of medicine (a chest consultant).
consume (verb)1 to eat (consume quantities of chocolate). 2 to use up (consume our supply of firewood). 3 to destroy, to waste (a building consumed by fire).
consumer (noun)one who buys or uses (consumers’ rights).
consummate (verb)to finish, to make complete or perfect (the award consummated his life’s work). adj complete, perfect (a consummate performance). n consummation
consumption (noun)1 the act of using. 2 the amount used (low electricity consumption). 3 (old) a disease of the lungs (tuberculosis).
consumptive (adjective)suffering from the disease of consumption (tuberculosis). Also n.
contact (noun)1 touch (come into contact with dangerous chemicals/in contact with someone with measles). 2 communication (keep in contact with old friends). vb to get in touch with, to communicate with (contact her by phone).
contact lens (noun)a small round piece of thin plastic or glass placed on the front of the eye to help the wearer see better.
Contact mechanicsstudy of the deformation of solids that touch each other (see list of branches of science)
contagious (adjective)1 (of disease) transmissible by direct or indirect contact (a contagious disease). 2 spreading from one to another; infectious (a contagious smile). n contagion
contain (verb)1 to have in it (a bucket containing a gallon of water). 2 to keep control of (contain the fire).
container (noun)anything made to hold something else in it (a plant container).
contaminate (verb)to make dirty, infected, or impure; to pollute (chemical waste contaminating the water). n contamination
contemn (verb)(old or lit) to look down on, to despise.
contemplate (verb)1 to look at thoughtfully (contemplating the bottom of his glass). 2 to think deeply about (contemplated her future). 3 to think of doing (contemplate moving). n contemplation
contemplative (adjective)1 thoughtful (in a contemplative mood). 2 spending a lot of time in prayer.
contemporary (adjective)1 belonging to the same time (contemporary musicians/a contemporary record of the war). 2 modern (contemporary styles). n one who lives at the same time as another (a contemporary of Bach).
contempt (noun)the feeling that another person or thing is worthless and to be looked down on; scorn (he showed his contempt for unsuccessful people).
contemptible (adjective)deserving to be looked down on (contemptible behavior).
contemptuous (adjective)showing contempt or scorn (a contemptuous smile).
contend (verb)1 to struggle against (contend against financial difficulties). 2 to compete (contending for the trophy). 3 to maintain, to state (contended that he was innocent). n contender
content1 (noun)that which is in something else (the content of his speech).
content2 (adjective)satisfied, pleased, not wanting more than one has (content with their humble way of life con-tent-ment/.
contention (noun)1 disagreement, argument (much contention in the town about the new road). 2 competition (in contention for the trophy). 3 an opinion (his contention is that he is innocent).
contentious (adjective)quarrelsome (contentious neighbors).
contest (verb)1 to try to prove wrong (contest the will). 2 to try hard to gain (contest the boxing title). n 1 a struggle (a contest for promotion). 2 a competition (an athletics contest).
contestant (noun)one who contests (the contestants in the quiz show).
context (noun)1 the parts of a sentence, book, paragraph, etc, surrounding a word or meaning (took the quotation out of context). 2 circumstances, the whole situation, background, or environment to a particular event (in the context of his unhappy childhood).
contiguous (adjective)(formal) touching, next to, neighboring (his farm and contiguous fields). n contiguity
continence (noun)self-control.
continent1 (adjective)able to control oneself.
continent2 (noun)one of the large land masses in the world (e.g. Africa).
continental (adjective)having to do with a continent.
contingency (noun)something that may happen but is not certain to do so (prepared for all possible contingencies).
contingent (adjective)1 happening only if something else happens first (success contingent upon hard work). 2 accidental (contingent advantages). n a body of soldiers, scouts, etc.
continual (adjective)1 going on all the time (live in continual fear). 2 happening again and again, repeated (continual interruptions).
continuance (noun)the going on or lasting of.
continuation (noun)1 act of going on or carrying on. 2 something that continues from something else (this is a continuation of the street where they live).
continue (verb)1 to go on doing (continue working although in pain). 2 to carry on with later (continue with his work after dinner). 3 to go or move further (the forest continuing as far as one can see). 4 to remain (continued in the same job).
continuity (noun)uninterrupted connection, a series, the fact or quality of being continuous (ensure continuity of supplies).
continuous (adjective)1 never stopping (continuous noise). 2 unbroken (a continuous line).
contort (verb)to twist out of shape (his face contorted in rage).
contortion (noun)1 act of twisting. 2 a twisting of the body.
contortionist (noun)one who entertains people by twisting his or her body into strange shapes; an acrobat.
contour (noun)1 an outline, a shape (the smooth contours of the sculpture). 2 a line drawn on a map through all places of the same height.
contraband (noun)1 goods that it is forbidden by law to bring into the country. 2 goods brought into the country against the law. adj (of goods) forbidden by law.
contract (verb)1 to arrange by agreement (contract to build the house). 2 to make or become smaller or shorter (metals contract as they cool). 3 to begin to have (contract a fatal illness). n a legal written agreement (sign a contract).
contraction (noun)1 the act of becoming smaller or shorter. 2 a shortened form (“I’m” is a contraction of “I am”/muscles contract when they are being used).
contractor (noun)one who undertakes to do certain jobs (a building contractor).
contradict (verb)1 to say the opposite (his story contradicts hers). 2 to say that something is not true (she contradicted what he said about the accident). n contradiction
contradictory (adjective)saying the opposite (contradictory statements).
contralto (noun)1 a low female singing voice. 2 a singer with a voice in this range. Also adj.
contraption (noun)an unusual machine or instrument (an inventor always building strange contraptions).
contrariety, contrariness (noun)opposition.
contrary (adjective)1 opposite (hold contrary opinions con-tray-ree con-tra-ree/ the opposite (on the contrary).
contrast (verb)1 to put things together to show clearly the differences between them (contrast their neat garden with our sloppy one). 2 to appear very different from (a black dress contrasting with her blonde hair). n a clear difference.
contravene (verb)to go against (a law or rule); to conflict with. n contravention
Contreltophobiafear of sexual abuse (see list of phobias)
contribute (verb)1 to give part of what is needed (contributing to her going-away present con-tri-byoo-shun con-tri-byu-ter/.
contributory (adjective)giving a share, helping.
contrite (adjective)showing or feeling guilt or sorrow for something one has done (a contrite apology). n contrition
contrive (verb)1 to succeed in, usually with difficulty (contriving to hold a surprise party for her). 2 to succeed in bringing about, usually with difficulty (contrived a meeting between the two rivals).
control (noun)1 power over the movements and actions of another person or thing (a country under the control of a tyrant). 2 power over one’s own thoughts and feelings (especially self-control) (keep her temper under control). 3 pl those parts of a machine that start, stop, or change the movement of all other parts (the controls of the plane). vb (controlled , controlling ) 1 to have power or authority over (controlled the whole department). 2 to direct the movements of (control the car). 3 to hold back, to restrain (control yourself). 4 to regulate, to cause to keep to a fixed standard (control prices). n controller
control tower (noun)an airport building from which messages are sent by radio to aircraft, telling them when, where, and how it is safe to land or take off.
controversial (adjective)causing disagreement, discussion, argument (a controversial decision).
controversy (noun)disagreement, discussion, argument (there has been a lot of controversy over the decision to close the local school).
controvert (verb)to argue or reason against (a statement that cannot be controverted).
conundrum (noun)a riddle or puzzle, often one whose answer is a play on words.
convalesce (verb)to recover gradually after an illness (home from hospital to convalesce). n convalescence adj and n convalescent
convection (noun)warming by the spreading of heat from a portion of water or air to that surrounding it until a current of warmth is set up.
convector (noun)a heater that works by convection.
convene (verb)1 to call together (convened a meeting). 2 to meet (the committee is convening).
convener (noun)1 one who calls members to a meeting. 2 the chairman of a committee.
convenience (noun)1 quality of being convenient or suitable (come at your convenience the convenience of her kitchen). 2 comfort (a house full of modern conveniences).
convenient (adjective)1 suitable, not causing trouble or difficulty (find a convenient date). 2 easy to reach, accessible (a house convenient for the train station). 3 easy to use or manage (the business was a convenient size).
convent (noun)a community of nuns or sometimes monks living under strict religious vows. adj conventual
convention (noun)1 a large meeting called for a special purpose (a convention on mental health). 2 an agreement (a convention to ban nuclear weapons). 3 a way of behaving that has been in use for so long that it is regarded as necessary; a custom (a common convention when meeting someone new is to shake hands/a matter of convention).
conventional (adjective)1 following convention (a conventional way of behaving). 2 accepting the manners and ideas of others, not original (a very conventional person).
converge (verb)to move from different directions toward one point (converging on the town from all directions). n convergence adj convergent
conversant (adjective)having knowledge of (not conversant with modern methods).
conversation (noun)talk, speech with others.
conversational (adjective)having to do with talk or speech with others (in conversational tones).
conversationalist (noun)one who is good at talking easily with others.
converse1 (verb)(formal) to talk together.
converse2 (noun)the exact opposite (the converse of what he says is true). Also adj.
conversely (adverb)looked at in the opposite way.
conversion (noun)a change, especially in belief or way of life (his conversion to Christianity).
convert (verb)1 to change from one state or form to another (coal converted to gas convert dollars to pounds). 2 to get another to change his or her ideas, especially on religion. n one who has changed his or her beliefs or way of life.
convertible (adjective)able to be changed into something else (a sofa convertible to a bed/a convertible sofa). n a car whose roof rolls or folds back so that the driver and passengers are riding in open air.
convertingCollective noun for preachers (A converting of preachers) (see list of collective nouns)
convex (adjective)curved outwards (like a bowl when upside down). n convexity
convey (verb)1 to carry, to take from one place to another (pipes conveying oil trucks conveying food). 2 to pass (e.g. property) from one person to another. 3 to make known (convey our apologies to our hostess).
conveyance (noun)1 any means of transport that carries people or things (go by public conveyance rather than private car). 2 the document by which property is passed from one person to another.
conveyancing (noun)the preparing of the papers to make a change in ownership lawful.
convict (verb)to prove guilty, especially in a court of law (convict him of robbery with). n a person imprisoned for a crime.
conviction (noun)1 a proving of guilt (he appealed against his conviction). 2 a strong belief (a woman of strong convictions).
convince (verb)to persuade a person that something is true (convincing the teacher of his innocence/I am convinced he is lying).
convincing (adjective)1 able to convince (a convincing argument). 2 clear (a convincing victory).
convivial (adjective)1 having to do with a feast or festive activity. 2 fond of eating, drinking, and good company. n conviviality
convocationCollective noun for eagles (A convocation of eagles) (see list of collective nouns)
convocation (noun)a meeting, especially for religious or academic purposes.
convoke (verb)to call together.
convolution (noun)1 a twisting or winding together (a carving with curves and convolutions). 2 complication (the convolutions of the plot). adj convolute vb convolve
convoyCollective noun for trucks (A convoy of trucks) (see list of collective nouns)
convoyCollective noun for vehicles (A convoy of vehicles) (see list of collective nouns)
convoy (verb)to go with to protect (a warship convoying ships across the Atlantic/parents convoying children to and from school). n 1 warships accompanying other ships to protect them. 2 the ships so protected. 3 a number of army wagons traveling together for protection.
convulse (verb)1 to shake violently (convulsing with laughter). 1 to agitate, to disturb (a country convulsed with revolution).
convulsion (noun)a fit, shaking (go into convulsions/suffer from convulsions).
convulsive (adjective)sudden and jerky (convulsive movements).
coo (verb)to make a soft, murmuring sound as a dove would; to speak gently and lovingly. Also n.
cook (verb)to prepare food by heating it. n one who prepares food for eating.
cookery (noun)the art, practice, or work of preparing food.
cookie (noun)1 a small, sweet cake, usually either crispy or chewy. 2 a small file placed on a computer by a website or online service to store information about the user.
cool (adjective)1 slightly cold, pleasantly cold (a cool drink on a hot day). 2 calm, not easily excited (keep cool in difficult situations). vb 1 to make or become colder (drinks cooling in the fridge). 2 to become calmer or less interested (she was very angry but she’s cooled down). n coolness.
coolly (adverb)calmly, without excitement.
coop (noun)a cage for hens or other small animals (a chicken coop). vb to shut up in a small space (cooped up in a small office).
cooper (noun)one who makes or repairs barrels.
cooperate, co-operate (verb)to work or act together (pupils cooperating on a project co-op-er-ay-shun/.
cooperative, co-operative (adjective)1 willing to work with others, helpful (the cooperative attitude of the staff). 2 made, done, etc, by people working together (a cooperative effort/a cooperative farm). Also n.
co-opt (verb)to elect into a society or committee by the votes of the members.
coordinate, co-ordinate (verb)to make things work or happen together for the same purpose (coordinate her movements coordinate our efforts). npl coordinates figures that indicate a position on a map or squared paper. n coordination, co-ordination
coot (noun)a duck-like freshwater bird.
cope1 (noun)a cape-like garment worn by a clergyman on certain occasions.
cope2 (verb)to deal with, especially successfully (coping with tired children unable to cope with his work).
coping (noun)the top row of stones, bricks, or concrete on a wall, usually sloped to carry off water.
copious (adjective)plentiful (copious supplies of food).
copper (noun)1 a reddish brown metal, used to make pennies. 2 a large metal container.
copperplate (noun)1 a plate of copper on which something has been engraved. 2 a print made from this.
Coprastasophobiafear of constipation (see list of phobias)
Coprologystudy of feces (see list of branches of science)
Coprophobiafear of feces or defecation (see list of phobias)
copse, coppice (noun)a group of small trees or bushes growing close together.
copy (noun)1 a thing done or made in exactly the same way as another (keep a copy of the letter/this picture is not by Picasso—it is a copy). 2 a single example of a newspaper, magazine, book, etc (order several copies of the book). 3 written material given to the printer for printing. vb to imitate, to make a copy of.
copyright (noun)the right, given to one person a team of people or publisher only, to reproduce and sell a particular book, musical work, or picture for a certain number of years.
coquette (noun)a woman who flirts. adj coquettish
coracle (noun)a boat made of basketwork or wicker and covered with animal skins.
coral (noun)a rock-like deposit found under the sea that consists of skeletons secreted by tiny creatures.
cordCollective noun for wood (A cord of wood) (see list of collective nouns)
cordCollective noun for woodwinds (A cord of woodwinds) (see list of collective nouns)
cord (noun)1 a thin rope; a thick string (tie the box up with cord). 2 a length of electrical cable attached to an electrical device. 3 a part of the body resembling this (the spinal cord/vocal cords).
cordial (adjective)1 very friendly (a cordial welcome). 2 heartfelt (cordial thanks). n a refreshing drink.
cordiality (noun)friendliness (greet his guests with great cordiality).
cordon (noun)a line of soldiers, police, etc, formed to prevent people from entering an area (crowds kept back from the accident by a police cordon). vb to surround with a cordon (police cordoned off the area around the house held by the gunman).
corduroy (noun)a strong cotton cloth with raised, cord-like lines running from one end to the other (pants made of brown corduroy).
core (noun)1 the central part of a fruit in which the seeds are stored (apple core). 2 the innermost part, the most important part (the core of the problem).
cork (noun)1 the cork tree or its bark. 2 a stopper made from cork (the cork from a wine bottle). vb to stop a bottle with a cork.
corkscrew (noun)an instrument for taking the cork out of a bottle.
corn1 (noun)1 a small, hard seed or seed-like fruit, kernel (peppercorn). 2 the seeds of some cereal plants, especially wheat or oats. 3 maize, sweetcorn. vb to put salt on or soak in salt water to preserve (corned beef).
corn2 (noun)a hard, painful growth of skin on the toe or foot.
corncob (noun)the woody core of an ear of corn where the kernels grow.
cornea (noun)the clear covering of the eyeball.
corner (noun)1 the meeting place of two walls (a table standing in the corner). 2 a bend in a road. 3 a difficult position (he is in a tight corner financially). vb 1 to drive into a position from which there is no escape (police succeeded in cornering the escaped prisoner). 2 to put into a difficult situation (corner the politician by asking awkward questions). 3 to gain total control of (corner the market in pine furniture).
cornerstone (noun)1 a stone put at the corner of the foundation of a new building. 2 something very important, something on which everything is based (the cornerstone of the firm’s success.
cornet (noun)a musical instrument similar to a trumpet.
cornflower (noun)a plant with white, pink, or blue flowers that form a round head at the top of the stem.
cornice (noun)1 a plaster decoration running along the top of a wall of a room (a cornice of flowers). 2 an ornamental line of stone sticking out at the top of a wall of a building.
cornstarch (noun),also cornflour (British spelling) a fine maize flour (thicken the sauce with cornstarch).
cornucopiaCollective noun for slugs (A cornucopia of slugs) (see list of collective nouns)
corollary (noun)something that must be true if another thing is proved true.
coronation (noun)the crowning of a king or queen.
coroner (noun)an officer of the law who determines the cause of death when it is not obviously due to natural causes (a case sent to the coroner).
corporal1 (adjective)(formal) having to do with the body. corporal punishment punishing by beating the body (in some countries corporal punishment is quite common).
corporal2 (noun)an officer in the military.
corporate (adjective)1 forming one group (several individuals forming a corporate body). 2 of or shared by all the members of a group (corporate responsibility). adv corporately
corporation (noun)a group of people allowed by the law to act as one person in certain cases (e.g. in business matters).
corpsCollective noun for anatomists (A corps of anatomists) (see list of collective nouns)
corps (noun)1 a large body of soldiers, a division of an army. 2 a group of people working together for one purpose (the Peace Corps).
corpse (noun)the dead body of a person.
corpulent (adjective)(formal) fat, stout (Santa Claus is corpulent and jolly person). n corpulence
corral (noun)1 an enclosure for horses or cattle. 2 (old) a defensive area made by drawing up covered wagons to form a circle in which to take cover from attackers.
correct (adjective)right, having no mistakes (the correct spelling). vb 1 to set right, to remove mistakes from (correct her spelling). 2 to point out or mark mistakes (corrected the student’s homework). n correctness
correction (noun)1 act of correcting. 2 the right thing put in place of a mistake (she had to write all her corrections in red).
corrective (adjective)putting right or improving what is wrong (corrective treatment/corrective punishment). Also n.
correspond (verb)1 to write letters to (I have corresponded with a friend overseas for many years). 2 to fit in with, to agree with (your written statement does not correspond with your spoken one). 3 to be like, to be the equal of (the elephant’s trunk corresponding to the human nose).
correspondence (noun)1 all the letters a person or office sends or receives. 2 likeness.
correspondent (noun)1 one who writes letters to another (the two old friends have been correspondents for many years). 2 one who makes special reports for a newspaper or a news broadcast (a foreign correspondent).
corresponding (adjective)like or similar.
corridor (noun)an indoor passage or hallway (several doors leading off the hotel corridor).
corroborate (verb)to support or confirm the story or idea of another (a statement corroborating other evidence). n corroboration adj corroborative
corrode (verb)to eat or wear away slowly (rust corroding the metal). n corrosion
corrosive (adjective)able to eat away (acids are corrosive substances). Also n.
corrugate (verb)to shape into an uneven, wavy, grooved surface. adj corrugated
corrupt (verb)to make or become evil or morally bad (young people corrupted by drug-dealers). adj 1 evil (corrupt drug-dealers). 2 ready to act dishonestly for money (corrupt officials accepting bribes). n corruption adv corruptly
corset (noun)a stiff, tight-fitting undergarment (corsets worn by women to make them look slimmer/corsets worn by people with back problems).
cortegeCollective noun for mourners (A cortege of mourners) (see list of collective nouns)
cosmetic (noun)something used to make the face and/or hair more beautiful (cosmetics such as lipstick). adj 1 intended to improve the appearance (cosmetic surgery following a car accident). 2 dealing only with outside appearances (cosmetic changes to the law).
Cosmetologystudy of cosmetics (see list of branches of science)
cosmic (adjective)1 having to do with the universe. 2 (informal) very great (changes of cosmic proportions).
Cosmochemistrystudy of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes that led to those compositions (see list of branches of science)
Cosmologystudy of the universe (see list of branches of science)
cosmology (noun)the study of the universe as a whole.
cosmopolitan (adjective)1 consisting of people from many different parts of the world (a cosmopolitan city). 2 having or showing wide experience of different people and places (a cosmopolitan attitude).
cosmos (noun)the whole universe as an orderly system (all the planets in the cosmos).
cosset (verb)to treat with great or too much kindness, to pamper (cosseting her by giving her breakfast in bed).
cost (verb)(pt, pp cost) 1 to be on sale at a certain price (apples costing 20 cents each). 2 to cause loss or suffering (the battle cost many lives). n 1 the price (the cost of the house). 2 loss (at the cost of many lives). 3 pl the money needed to pay for a lawsuit (lose the case and have to pay costs).
costly (adjective)1 costing a lot of money (costly silk clothes). 2 involving great loss or sacrifice (a costly war).
costume (noun)the clothes worn in a special place or at a special time (bathing costume/a Halloween costume).
costumer (noun)a person who makes, sells, or rents of costumes.
cot (noun)1 a small bed with high barred sides for a baby or young child. 2 bed that can be folded and stored away, generally used for overnight guests.
coterieCollective noun for orchids (A coterie of orchids) (see list of collective nouns)
coterieCollective noun for prairie dogs (A coterie of prairie dogs) (see list of collective nouns)
cottage (noun)a small house. n cottager a person who lives in a cottage.
cotton (noun)1 a soft white substance from the cotton plant. 2 thread or cloth made of cotton. Also adj.
cotton wool (noun)raw cotton before it is made into thread or cloth (remove make-up with cotton wool).
couch (noun)a sofa; a long piece of furniture on which one lies. vb (formal) to put into words (couch his statement in simple words).
couchant (adjective)(of an animal) lying down but on all four paws with the head up (a statue of a lion couchant).
cougar (noun)a puma or mountain lion, a large, wild animal of the cat family found in the US.
cough (verb)to force air noisily from the throat, often to clear it of some matter, such as dust or phlegm. n 1 a noisy forcing of the air from the throat. 2 an illness marked by frequent coughing (have a bad cough).
Coulrophobiafear of clowns (see list of phobias)
councilCollective noun for members (A council of members) (see list of collective nouns)
council (noun)a group of people chosen to make decisions, to advise, or to discuss issues affecting a larger number (city council).
councilor (noun)a member of a council.
counsel (noun)1 (formal) advice (refuse to listen to his father’s counsel). 2 professional advice given by a counselor (debt counsel). 3 the lawyer who presents a case in a court of law. vb to advise.
counseling (noun)the act of listening to people’s difficulties or problems and giving professional advice as to how to cope with them or solve them (They were given counseling after being held hostage).
counselor (noun)an adviser, one who gives (professional) advice on a variety of personal problems (a marriage counselor).
count1 (verb)1 to number (count the people as they enter). 2 to consider (she counts him among her friends). 3 to matter (money doesn’t count with her). n a numbering (a count of the votes).
count2 (noun)a European nobleman.
countenance (noun)(formal) 1 the face (a beautiful countenance). 2 the expression of the face (a fierce countenance). vb (formal) to tolerate, to allow (refuse to countenance such behavior).
counter (noun)1 a person or thing that counts (the counters of votes at elections). 2 a small flat object used in some games to keep score. 3 the table in a shop across which goods are sold. vb to act in order to oppose or defend onself against (counter the enemy attack by bringing in more soldiers).
counteract (verb)to undo or prevent the effect of by opposite action (a drug that counteracts the effect of the poison).
counterattack (noun)an attack made in reply to an enemy attack. Also vb.
counterbalance (verb)to put something of equal weight or importance on the other side (the expense of the project is counterbalanced by its usefulness).
counterclockwise (adverb) also anti-clockwise (British spelling) revolving in the direction opposite to the way the hands of a clock would turn
counterfeit (verb)1 to copy or imitate with intent to deceive (accused of counterfeiting $20 bills). 2 (formal) to pretend (counterfeit cheerfulness). adj 1 not real. 2 made alike so as to deceive. 3 pretended. n something copied, not real or true. n counterfeiter
counterpart (noun)a person or thing similar to another or having a similar function to another (his counterpart in the opposing team).
Counterphobiafear of not being in fearful situations (see list of phobias)
counterpoint (noun)(music) the art of arranging two different tunes so that they can be played together.
countess (noun)the wife of a count or of an earl.
countless (adjective)too many to be counted (countless visitors).
country (noun)1 the land of one nation or people. 2 the land outside and away from towns (a quiet weekend in the country). 3 an area or stretch of land (hilly country). adj having to do with the country rather than the town (country districts).
countrysideCollective noun for cousins (A countryside of cousins) (see list of collective nouns)
countryside (noun)country or rural areas (admire the beauty of the countryside).
county (noun)a district of a country or state.
coup (noun)a sudden successful action (pull off a coup by taking business away from the competition).
coupé (noun)a two-door car.
coupleCollective noun for bottles (A couple of bottles) (see list of collective nouns)
coupleCollective noun for impalas (A couple of impalas) (see list of collective nouns)
couple (noun)1 (informal) two. 2 husband and wife 3 two people who are in a committed relationship. vb 1 to join (coupling the carriage to the train/bad weather coupled with illness kept many people away). 2 to link or associate with (their names have been coupled).
couplet (noun)two lines of poetry, one after the other, that rhyme.
coupling (noun)a joining link, as that between two railway carriages.
coupon (noun)a ticket that can be exchanged for money or goods.
courage (noun)bravery.
courageous (adjective)brave, fearless.
courier (noun)1 a messenger (packages delivered by courier). 2 a guide in charge of a party of travelers.
course (noun)1 the way along which a thing moves or runs (the course of the river/the usual course of events). 2 the ground on which a race is run or golf is played. 3 a number of lectures or lessons given for the same purpose (take a course in English literature). 4 a row or layer, as of bricks in a wall or shingles on a roof. 5 part of a meal served at one time (a meal consisting of three courses). vb 1 to chase. 2 (formal) to move quickly (tears coursing down her cheeks).
court (noun)1 an open area surrounded or partly surrounded by buildings, houses, or walls; a courtyard. 2 a place marked out for tennis, racketball, etc. 3 a king and queen and all their advisors and attendants. 4 the building in which judges hear cases and give decisions. 5 all the judges and officials in a court of law. 6 attentions paid to someone to gain favor (pay court to her in the hope that she would marry him/pay court to wealthy people). vb 1 to pay attention to someone to try and gain the love of. 2 (formal) to try to gain (court the audience’s approval). 3 to act in a way that is likely to bring about (something unpleasant) (court disaster).
courteous (adjective)polite, considerate, and respectful (a courteous young man/a courteous reply).
courtesy (noun)politeness, good manners (treat people with courtesy/have the courtesy to apologize).
courtier (noun)someone who attends the court of a king or queen.
court-martial (noun)(pl courts-martial) a military court, with officers acting as judges. vb court-martial (court-martialed, court-martialing) to try by court-martial (court-martialed for taking leave without permission).
courtship (noun)courting or wooing in hopes of obtaining love.
courtyard (noun)an open space surrounded or partly surrounded by buildings, walls, or houses.
cousin (noun)the child of an uncle or aunt, the child of a parent’s brother or sister
cove (noun)a small bay or inlet (build sandcastles in a sandy cove).
covenCollective noun for vampires (A coven of vampires) (see list of collective nouns)
covenCollective noun for witches (A coven of witches) (see list of collective nouns)
covenant (noun)a written agreement (sign a covenant to give money regularly to a charity). vb to enter into written agreement, to promise.
cover (verb)1 to spread over (cover the table with a cloth/the ground covered in snow). 2 to protect (cover her eyes in the sunlight). 3 to wrap (up) (covering her head from the cold). 4 to include (the cost covers the hotel stay and meals). also n.
covering (noun)anything that covers (a covering of snow).
covert (adjective)secret, hidden (exchange covert glances/the covert activities of the spy). n 1 a shelter. 2 a group of bushes or trees in which hunted birds or animals can hide.
covet (verb)to want to have something belonging to another (she coveted her friend’s diamond ring). adj covetous n covetousness
coveyCollective noun for grouse (A covey of grouse) (see list of collective nouns)
coveyCollective noun for partridges (A covey of partridges) (see list of collective nouns)
cow (noun)the female of certain animals (e.g. of cattle, elephants, whales).
coward (noun)one easily frightened in the face of danger.
cowardiceCollective noun for curs (A cowardice of curs) (see list of collective nouns)
cowardice (noun)fear of danger (showed his cowardice in running away).
cowardly (adjective)having no bravery, showing fear (too cowardly to admit his mistakes).
cowboy (noun)a man who looks after cattle on a ranch on horseback. f cowgirl.
cower (verb)to crouch or shrink back out of fear (cowered in a corner as the bully threatened him).
cowherd (noun)one who looks after cows.
coy (adjective)1 shy, bashful, especially excessively so. 2 hesitant to give information (coy about her age). adv coyly
coyote (noun)a animal of the dog family resembling a small wolf, found in North America.
cozy (adjective), also cosypleasantly comfortable or warm (a cozy room)
crab (noun)1 a sea creature with eight legs and two pincers, a flat shell, and a short, wide belly. 2 the sideways motion of an aircraft. vb to fish for crab (we went crabbing along the coast).
crab apple (noun)1 very small apples growing wild or grown for making jellies or preserves. 2 a tree bearing crab apples.
crabbed (adjective)bad-tempered, cross.
crack (noun)1 a sudden, sharp noise (the crack of thunder). 2 a break in which the parts remain together (a crack in the vase). 3 a sharp blow (a crack on the head). 4 (sl) a form of the drug cocaine. Also vb.
cracked (adjective)1 broken, but not in pieces. 2 (informal) mad (don’t listen to him—he’s completely cracked).
cracker (noun)a crisp, thin wafer or biscuit (crackers with cheese).
crackle (verb)to make a series of short, sharp, popping noises, to rustle (dry leaves crackling underfoot as they walked). n the act or sound of crackling.
cradle (noun)1 a baby’s bed that can be rocked or swung. 2 the frame in which something is cradled, such as the frame under a ship when it is being built or the base of a telephone where the receiver is placed. 3 the place of a thing’s early development (East Africa is thought to be the cradle of civilization). vb to hold or rock as in a cradle (she cradled the head of the dying man in her arms).
craft (noun)1 a special skill, especially with the hands (a craft such as woodworking). 2 cleverness, especially in deceiving (gain entry to the house by craft). 3 a ship (a seaworthy craft).
craftsman (noun)a skilled worker, especially with the hands. n craftsmanship
crafty (adjective)good at deceiving, clever, tricky (criminals too crafty to get caught by the police). adv craftily
crag (noun)a steep, rough rock that rises above others or projects from a rock mass. adj craggy
cram (verb)(crammed , cramming ) 1 to fill very full by pressing or squeezing (cram the suitcase full of clothes). 2 to learn many facts immediately before a test.
crammer (noun)a teacher or a school who prepares a pupil or pupils for an examination often in a shorter time than usual, esp pupils who have already failed that examination.
cramp (noun)a sudden, sharp pain in a muscle (suffer from stomach cramps). vb to prevent free movement, to hinder (lack of money cramps his style).
cranberry (noun)a sour, red berry used in making juice, in cooking, and in baking.
crane (noun)1 a long-legged, long-necked water bird. 2 a machine for lifting or moving heavy weights using a moving beam or arm anchored to its base by an overhead support. vb to stretch out one’s neck (craning his neck to see over the crowd).
Craniologystudy of the skull (see list of branches of science)
cranium (noun)(formal) the skull (suffer injury to the cranium). adj cranial.
crank (noun)1 in machines, a part that changes an up-and-down or side-to-side movement into a round-and-round movement (or the other way round). 2 a person who complains a lot. 3 a person with fixed, obsessive ideas, a person with strange ideas (a health-food crank). vb to turn or wind.
cranny (noun)a small narrow opening, a crack (insects in the crannies of the walls).
crashCollective noun for glaziers (A crash of glaziers) (see list of collective nouns)
crashCollective noun for rhinoceroses (A crash of rhinoceroses) (see list of collective nouns)
crashCollective noun for software (A crash of software) (see list of collective nouns)
crash (verb)1 to fall with a loud noise (the vase crashed to the floor). 2 to dash violently against something (crashing his fist into the wall). n 1 the loud noise of a breakage or wreckage. 2 the sudden failure of a business (the crash of his firm).
crass (adjective)very stupid, insensitive.
crate (noun)a large box, basket, or packing case, made with wooden boards, wicker or plastic.
crater (noun)1 the bowl-shaped mouth of a volcano. 2 a deep, wide hole in the ground.
cravat (noun)a piece of cloth worn round the neck (a silk cravat tucked into the neck of his shirt).
crave (verb)1 (formal) to beg for (crave forgiveness). 2 to desire very much (craving a chocolate bar/craved admiration).
craving (noun)a strong desire.
crawl (verb)1 to move with the body on or near the ground, to move on the hands and knees (crawl along the tunnel/babies learning to crawl). 2 to move slowly (time crawled by). n 1 act of crawling. 2 a style in swimming.
crayfish, also crawfish (noun)small, usually freshwater shellfish that look like little lobsters.
crayon (noun)a stick of colored chalk, wax, or charcoal used for drawing, coloring, or writing. vb to draw with crayons.
craze (noun)a popular fashion, a temporary excitement for something (there was a craze in the 1970s for flared pants).
crazy (adjective)1 (informal) insane (he must be crazy to think that). 2 very excited, liking very much (he was crazy about horror films/my brother is crazy about the girl next door).
creak (verb)to make a harsh grating or squeaking sound (stairs creaking as he crept upstairs). adj creaky Also n.
cream (noun)1 the oily, yellowish part of the milk that rises to the top, and from which butter is made. 2 the best of anything (the cream of the crop). 3 a cream-like substance for rubbing into the skin (hand cream). 4 the color of cream. adj creamy like cream (a creamy dessert).
creamery (noun)a place where milk is made into butter and cheese.
crease (noun)a mark made by folding, crushing, or pressing. vb to make creases in (her skirt creased from sitting too long).
create (verb)1 to bring into existence (he created a sculpture from a lump of clay). 2 to make (create a bad impression fashion designers creating a new line).
creation (noun)1 act of creating. 2 anything made or invented (fashion designers showing their latest creations).
creative (adjective)1 involving creation (the creative process). 2 able to create or invent; producing original ideas and works (a creative writer).
creator (noun)one who creates or invents (he was the creator of the masterpiece). the Creator God, the Supreme Being.
creature (noun)anything created, especially humans, animals, and other living things.
crècheCollective noun for infantry (A crèche of infantry) (see list of collective nouns)
credenceCollective noun for stewards (A credence of stewards) (see list of collective nouns)
credence (noun)belief, trust (give no credence to what he says).
credentials (noun, plural)papers saying that the owner of them may be trusted (ask the candidates for the job for their credentials).
credible (adjective)able to be believed (a scarcely credible story). n credibility
credit (noun)1 belief, trust in (place no credit in their policies). 2 approval or praise (give him credit for capturing the thief). 3 a cause of honor (a credit to his school). 4 a system of buying goods or services and paying for them later (buy the video on credit). 5 the quality of being able to pay debts (her credit is good). 6 the money a person has in a bank (an account in credit). vb 1 to believe. 2 to sell or lend in trust. 3 to write in on the credit side of an account. 4 to consider as having (a good quality).
credit card (noun)a plastic card with which goods can be purchased and paid for later.
creditable (adjective)deserving praise (a creditable achievement).
creditor (noun)one to whom money is owed.
credulous (adjective)too ready to believe, too trusting (credulous people who would believe anything). n credulity
creed (noun)1 that which one believes, especially in religion (people of every creed). 2 a statement of one’s faith or beliefs.
creek (noun)a small stream, somewhat larger than a brook.
creel (noun)a basket-like cage for catching fish.
creepCollective noun for tortoises (A creep of tortoises) (see list of collective nouns)
creep (verb)(pt, pp crept ) 1 to move with the body on or near the ground. 2 to move slowly and silently (creep upstairs). 3 to shiver with horror (her flesh crept at the ghostly sight). n a person regarded as annoying or disgusting.
creeper (noun)1 a person, animal, or thing that creeps. 2 a plant that grows along the ground or up walls, trees, etc.
creepy (adjective)(informal) eerie, strange, causing fear or disgust (a creepy story/a creepy old house).
cremate (verb)to burn a dead body to ashes.
cremation (noun)act of cremating.
crematory (noun),also crematorium a place where dead bodies are cremated. .
Cremnophobiafear of precipices or steep cliffs (see list of phobias)
Creole (noun)1 a person born in the West Indies, Central America, tropical South America, or Gulf States but with European parents. 2 a descendant of such persons, specifically a person descended from the French settlers of Louisiana (New Orleans area). 3 French, as spoken by Creoles. 4 adj (lowercase) prepared with sauteed tomatoes, green peppers, onions, and spices.
creosote (noun)an oily liquid taken from tar and used to disinfect or preserve wood from decay.
crepe (noun)1 a thin, soft, crinkly cloth (a dress of blue crepe). 2 any crinkly material (crepe paper). 3 a thin pancake, generally served rolled or folded with a filling.
crescendo (noun)1 a sign used in writing music. 2 a gradual increase in loudness.
crescent (noun)1 the shape of the moon in its first and last quarter. 2 a narrow, tapering curve. 3 a curving street. adj shaped like a crescent.
cress (noun)an edible water plant.
crest (noun)1 a tuft or comb on the heads of certain birds (a cock’s crest). 2 a bunch of feathers on the top of a helmet. 3 a sign or badge of a family, seen on a coats-of-arms, writing paper, etc. 4 the top of a slope, wave, etc (surfing on the crest of a wave). vb to get to the top of.
crestfallen (adjective)sad, disappointed (feel crestfallen at missing the party).
cretin (noun)1 a person who is suffering from cretinism. 2 (informal) a foolish or stupid person.
crevasse (noun)1 a deep crack in a glacier. 2 a break in the outside walls of a river.
crevice (noun)a narrow opening caused by a crack or split (crevices in the stone wall).
crewCollective noun for sailors (A crew of sailors) (see list of collective nouns)
crew (noun)1 the sailors of a ship. 2 a group of people working or classed together, a gang. 3 the rowers on a rowing team.
crib (noun)1 a baby’s bed. 2 something copied dishonestly from someone else. 3 a translation of a text. 4 the house, apartment, etc, where a person lives. vb (cribbed , cribbing ) to copy unfairly the work of another.
cribbage (noun)a card game for up to four players in which the object is to form various combinations for points.
crick (noun)a painful stiffness, especially of the neck. vb to cause this (cricked her neck looking over her shoulder).
cricket1 (noun)a small, black, jumping insect that makes chirping noises with its legs.
cricket2 (noun)an outdoor game played with a flat bat and red leather ball by a team of eleven. n cricketer.
crime (noun)a breaking of the law (the crime of murder).
criminal (adjective)1 against the law (convicted of a criminal act). 2 wrong, wicked (it was criminal to cut down such a beautiful tree). n one who breaks the law.
Criminologystudy of crime and criminals (see list of branches of science)
crimp (verb)1 to compress into small folds or ridges (crimp the cloth). 2 to curl (crimp her hair).
crimson (noun)a deep red color. Also adj. vb to make or become red.
cringe (verb)1 to shrink back in fear (cringe from the bully/cats cringing at the sight of the dogs). 2 to behave too humbly toward (cringe in the presence of the boss).
crinkle (verb)to twist or bend into many folds, to wrinkle. n a fold or wrinkle.
cripple (noun)an offensive, informal word for a person who is unable to use some or all of his or her limbs. vb 1 to make unable to move freely, to make lame (the accident crippled her foot). 2 to make less strong, to cause not to work as well, etc (debts are crippling the country’s economy).
crisis (noun)(pl crises )1 a turning point at which things must become either better or worse (her illness came to a crisis suddenly during the night). 2 a very serious state of affairs (the firm recovered from a financial crisis/the country was thrown into crisis by the flu epidemic).
crisp (adjective)1 hard but easily broken (crisp crackers). 2 tight (crisp curls). 3 fresh and firm (crisp apples). 4 firm and clear (the officer give crisp orders). 5 dry and clear (it was a lovely crisp day in the fall). vb to curl or twist. adj crispy adv crisply
criterion (noun)(pl criteria ) a rule or standard with which things may be compared to judge their value; a test (many criteria were used in judging the novel).
critic (noun)1 one who judges something by pointing out its good and bad points (a theater critic). 2 one who finds fault, a person who expresses dislike and disapproval of (my step-mother was my worst critic).
critical (adjective)1 pointing out both good and bad (a critical analysis of the play). 2 hard to please, ready to find fault (he was in a critical mood). 3 having to do with a crisis (a critical point in his career). 4 most important (at the critical moment).
criticism (noun)1 judgment (literary criticism). 2 fault-finding (I was tired of her constant criticism).
criticize (verb), also criticise (British spelling)1 to point out the good and bad in. 2 to find fault with (his mother was always criticizing his clothes).
critique (noun)an essay discussion in which a criticism is made.
croak (verb)to make a low, hoarse noise in the throat (he croaked like a frog because of a sore throat). Also n. adj croaky
crochet (noun)a type of knitting done with one hooked needle. vb to knit in this way (she crocheted a blanket).
crock1 (noun)a pot or jar (a crock of salt).
crock2 (noun)an old, broken-down animal; anything useless. vb to injure.
crockery (noun)earthenware or china cups, plates, and other dishes.
crocodile (noun)a large, lizard-like reptile with a long snout, long tail, large teeth, and a scaly body that lives in or around water.
crocodile tears (noun, plural)pretended sorrow or grief (she cried but it was only crocodile tears).
crocus (noun)a spring plant grown from a bulb with yellow, purple, or white flowers that bloom in early spring.
croissant (noun)a light, crescent-shaped roll made of flaky pastry usually eaten at breakfast.
crone (noun)(old) an old woman.
crony (noun)(informal) a close friend (get together with his cronies).
crook (noun)1 a bend, curve (in the crook of one’s arm). 2 a stick, hook-shaped at one end, as carried by a shepherd or bishop. 3 (informal) a dishonest person, a criminal (a crook who eventually went to jail). vb to bend, to shape like a hook.
crooked (adjective)1 not straight, twisted (a crooked stick croo-ked-ness/.
croon (verb)to sing softly (crooning a lullaby to the child).
crop (noun)1 a pocket in the throat of birds in which the food is partly digested before passing to the stomach. 2 a riding whip. 3 the whole amount of grain, fruit, etc, that is grown or gathered at one place or time (the wheat crop a disappointing crop of apples). 4 a short haircut. vb (cropped , cropping ) 1 to cut short (crop his hair). 2 to bite off (sheep cropping the grass). 3 to sow or gather (a crop). crop up to turn up unexpectedly (difficulties that cropped up/one of the subjects that crop up). come a cropper 1 to fall heavily (come a cropper on the icy surface). 2 to fail completely (he came a cropper when he tried to expand his business).
croquet (noun)a game in which wooden balls are hit through hoops with long hammer-shaped wooden clubs.
cross (noun)1 a mark made by drawing one straight line across another, e.g. +, x. 2 one piece of wood fastened across another in the shape of a cross. 3 anything made in the shape of a cross (wear a cross around her neck). 4 the sign of the Christian religion. 5 (old) a cross-shaped wooden frame to which criminals were fixed as a punishment. 6 a place where roads meet. 7 a monument in the shape of a cross (a cross in the middle of the town). 8 a source of suffering or sorrow (a cross to bear). 9 an animal or plant that is the offspring of different breeds or varieties (a mule is a cross between a horse and a donkey). vb 1 to draw a line through or across (cross out the mistakes). 2 to go from one side to the other side (cross the road). 3 to pass across each other (the roads cross before the town). 4 to put or place something across or over something of the same type (crossing her fingers). 5 to hinder, to obstruct (he doesn’t like to be crossed). adj angry, bad-tempered (feeling cross about ripping her tights). adv crossly n crossness
crossbow (noun)a bow fixed across a support or stand onto which the string is looped when drawn back, then fired by a trigger.
crossbreed (noun)a mixture of two breeds. Also vb.
cross-country (adjective)going across fields, etc, instead of along roads (people taking part in a cross-country race).
cross-examine (verb)to ask a person questions about a statement he or she has made to test its truth, especially in a court of law (cross-examine the witness for the defense). n cross-examination
cross-eyed (adjective)an abnormal condition in which the eyes are turned toward each other, facing inward.
crossing (noun)a place at which one may cross a street, river, etc (cross the road at the pedestrian crossing by the school).
cross-purpose (noun)to be at cross-purposes to disagree with another through a misunderstanding (they were at cross-purposes—they were talking about different people without realizing it).
cross-question (verb)to cross-examine.
cross-reference (noun)the mention in a book of another passage in the same book in which the same subject is discussed.
crossroads (noun)the place where two roads cross.
crossword (noun)a word puzzle with squares and clues, in which each answer shares a letter with another answer.
crotchet (noun)1 a strange desire or idea, a whim. 2 a hook.
crotchety (adjective)1 (old) having strange desires or ideas. 2 cross, bad-tempered (a crotchety old man).
crouch (verb)to bend low (crouch down to look at the plant).
croup (noun)a disease of the throat in children consisting of a swollen throat, a hoarse cough, and trouble breathing.
croupier (noun)the person who takes in and gives out the money at a gambling table.
crow (noun)1 a large black bird. 2 the cry of a rooster (sleepers disturbed by the crow of the rooster). 3 a baby’s cry of pleasure (crows of delight). vb 1 to cry like a rooster. 2 (of a baby) to make sounds expressing pleasure. 3 (informal) to boast (crowing about his new car). as the crow flies following the straightest and shortest way from one place to another.
crowbar (noun)a bar of iron used to raise heavy objects or open things that are stuck or tightly shut (pry the load up with a crowbar).
crowdCollective noun for onlookers (A crowd of onlookers) (see list of collective nouns)
crowdCollective noun for people (A crowd of people) (see list of collective nouns)
crowdCollective noun for redwing (A crowd of redwing) (see list of collective nouns)
crowd (noun)a large number of people gathered together, especially into a small space (a crowd packed the hall). vb 1 to come together in large numbers (the people crowded together in the square). 2 to fill too full by coming together in (crowd the streets).
crowded (adjective)full of people or objects.
crown (noun)1 an ornamental headcovering worn by a king or queen as a sign of office. 2 a wreath worn on the head (a crown of flowers). 3 the top of certain things (the crown of the hill the crown of the hat). vb 1 to put a crown on (crown the king). 2 to finish with a success (the award crowned a fine career). 3 (informal) to hit on the head (crowned him with an iron bar).
crows-feet (noun, plural)the little lines on the face at the outside corners of the eye.
crucial (adjective)of the greatest importance, needing a clear decision (he decided to take the crucial step of resigning/the next game is a crucial one for the championship).
crucible (noun)a melting pot.
crucifix (noun)a figure of Jesus Christ on a cross.
crucifixion (noun)act of crucifying.
Crucifixion (the) (noun)the crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ.
crucify (verb)1 to put to death by fastening on a cross and being left. 2 to treat cruelly, to deal with severely (a politician crucified by the press about his private life).
crude (adjective)1 rough (crude garden furniture). 2 in the natural state (crude oil crude voices). n crudity
cruel (adjective)1 taking pleasure in making others suffer, hard-hearted (a cruel tyrant). 2 causing pain (a cruel blow crool-tee/.
cruet (noun)a small glass bottle for vinegar, salt, oil, etc.
cruftCollective noun for hackers (A cruft of hackers) (see list of collective nouns)
cruise (verb)1 to sail from place to place, often now for pleasure. 2 to travel at the speed that uses the least amount of fuel. Also n.
cruiser (noun)1 a fast warship. 2 anything that cruises.
crumb (noun)1 a very small bit, especially of some form of bread (biscuit crumbs/toast crumbs). 2 a small piece (a crumb of comfort).
crumble (verb)1 to break into small bits or dust (crumble the bread). 2 to fall to pieces or into dust (ancient walls gradually crumbling). 3 gradually to get into a poor state and come to an end (empires crumble/hopes crumble).
crumple (verb)1 to press into many folds, to crush out of shape (crumpling her dress). 2 to fall down suddenly (she crumpled down in a faint). 3 to collapse, to fail (all resistance to the enemy suddenly crumpled). Also n.
crunch (verb)to crush noisily with the teeth (the dog was crunching a bone). Also n.
crusade (noun)1 an attempt by Christian armies from the eleventh to thirteenth centuries to win back control of the Holy Land from Muslims. 2 any attempt by a number of people to do what is considered to be good or work against what is considered to be evil (a crusade against dishonest officials). n crusader
crushCollective noun for shoppers (A crush of shoppers) (see list of collective nouns)
crush (verb)1 to squeeze or press together with force. 2 to press out of shape. 3 to defeat completely. n the crowding together of things or persons. adj crushing
crust (noun)the hard, crispy, or crunchy outside of anything (e.g. bread). vb to cover with a crust.
crusty (adjective)1 having a distinctive crust (a crusty pizza base). 2 short-tempered (a crusty old man). adv crustily
crutch (noun)1 a stick, with a top made to fit under the armpits, to support people whose legs have been injured. 2 a person or thing that provides help and/or support (her teddy bear is a crutch).
crux (noun)the most important or difficult part of a matter, issue, etc (lack of money is the crux of the problem).
cry (verb)1 to make shrill, loud sounds, as of weeping, joy, etc (cried for help). 2 to weep. 3 to shout. Also n.
Cryobiologystudy of life under cold conditions (see list of branches of science)
Cryophobiafear of extreme cold, ice or frost (see list of phobias)
crypt (noun)an underground chamber or vault, found in some churches, often used as a burial place.
cryptic (adjective)difficult to understand, sometimes on purpose (a cryptic remark/a cryptic message).
Cryptologystudy of codes (see list of branches of science)
Cryptozoologystudy of animals for whose existence there is no conclusive proof (see list of branches of science)
crystal (noun)1 a clear, bright glass. 2 a hard, glassy-looking stone. 3 one of the regular shapes in which the atoms of certain bodies are arranged. Also adj.
crystalline (adjective)1 clear (crystalline water). 2 made of or like crystal.
crystallize (verb), also crystallise (British spelling)1 to form into crystals. 2 to make or become clear or definite (plans beginning to crystallize). n crystallization , also crystallisation (British spelling)
Crystallophobiafear of crystals or glass (see list of phobias)
Ctetologystudy of the inheritance of acquired characteristics (see list of branches of science)
cub (noun)the young of certain animals (e.g. bear, fox, etc).
cube (noun)1 a solid body with six equal square sides. 2 the answer got by multiplying a number twice by itself (e.g. 2 2 2 = 8, therefore 8 is the cube of 2, and 2 is the cube root of 8).
cubic (adjective)1 cube-shaped. 2 having to do with cubes.
cubicle (noun)1 a small sleeping area in a dormitory. 2 any small compartment in a larger room (changing cubicles at the swimming pool).
cuckoo (noun)a grayish brown bird with a white underside whose call sounds similar to its name.
cucumber (noun)a creeping plant with a long green fruit often used in salads.
cud (noun)the food that certain animals bring up from their stomachs to chew again.
cuddle (verb)1 to hug lovingly (cuddled the baby). 2 to lie close and comfortably (children cuddling to keep warm).
cue (noun)1 a word or sign that reminds a person of what to say or do next (the last words of an actor’s speech act as a cue to the next speaker). 2 the long stick used for striking the balls in bllliards and pool.
cuff1 (noun)the part of a sleeve near the wrist.
cuff2 (noun)a blow (a cuff on the ear). Also vb.
cuisine (noun)a style of cooking (French cuisine/Italian cuisine).
cul-de-sac (noun)a street closed at one end, a dead end street.
culinary (adjective)having to do with cooking (culinary skills).
cull (verb)1 to gather, choose, or select (information culled from many sources). 2 to select and destroy (the librarian culled some needless books).
culminate (verb)to reach the highest point (small battles culminating in a full-scale war). n culmination
culprit (noun)a wrongdoer, one accused of a crime (catch the culprit committing the crime).
cult (noun)a particular, often temporarily, fashionable system of beliefs, especially religious.
cultivate (verb)1 to prepare (land) for the growing of crops. 2 to make to grow (cultivating several types of vegetable). 3 to improve (the mind) (reading books and listening to music to cultivate her mind). n cultivation n cultivator cul-ti-vay-tor/.
cultureCollective noun for bacteria (A culture of bacteria) (see list of collective nouns)
cultureCollective noun for microbiologists (A culture of microbiologists) (see list of collective nouns)
culture (noun)1 the character of an age and people as seen in customs, arts, etc (learn about Roman culture). 2 learning and good taste (people of culture). 3 the rearing of creatures or growing of plants in conditions not natural to them. adj cultural.
cultured (adjective)1 having learning and good taste (cultured people interested in the arts). 2 artificially grown.
cumbersome (adjective)1 heavy and difficult to move (cumbersome parcels/cumbersome furniture). 2 slow and not working to the best ability (a cumbersome method of government).
cumulative (adjective)(formal) growing gradually larger by being added to (cumulative damage to the atmosphere). vb cumulate
cumulus (noun)a mass of white rounded clouds. adj cumulous.
cunning (adjective)1 clever, skillful, crafty (a cunning trick). 2 good at deceiving (a cunning cheat). 3 clever (a cunning device). n skill, deceit.
cup (noun)a small drinking vessel. vb (cupped , cupping ) to put into the shape of a cup (cup her hands around the flower/cup his hands to catch the ball).
cupboard (noun)a shelved place for storing food, dishes, etc.
cupcake (noun)a small sponge cake, cooked in a paper case, usually with frosting on top.
cupful (noun)the amount a cup holds.
curator (noun)one in charge of a museum, art gallery, etc.
curb (verb)to control, to keep in check (curb his anger/curb their spending). n 1 anything that controls or holds in check (a curb on their expenditure). 2 a chain or strap fastened to the bit in a horse’s mouth. 3 the concrete edging along a street that separates it from the sidewalk or guttering.
curd (noun)a solid substance that forms in sour milk, and from which cheese is made.
curdle (verb)to thicken, to become solid (a creamy sauce curdling when boiled).
cure (noun)1 act of healing. 2 that which heals or gives back health (a cure for cancer). 3 (formal) the care of souls. vb 1 to heal. 2 to preserve meat, fish, etc.
curfew (noun)1 (old) a bell rung in the evening as a signal to put out all lights. 2 a military order for people to be indoors and keep the streets empty after a certain hour (imposed a curfew after the riots). 3 the time at which people have to be indoors or in their homes.
curiosity (noun)1 the desire to learn, or to find out about (full of curiosity about her neighbors’ lives). 2 a rare or strange object (a shop full of curiosities).
curious (adjective)1 wanting to learn (curious about the origin of mankind). 2 wanting to know the private affairs of others (neighbors curious about where she goes in the evenings). 3 strange (rather a curious figure/it’s curious that he has disappeared).
curl (verb)1 to form into ringlets. 2 to twist around (smoke curling from the chimney). 3 to play at the game of curling. n a ringlet.
curling (noun)a winter game played on ice, involving sliding heavy smooth stones toward a target.
curly (adjective)having curls (curly hair).
currant (noun)1 a small dried grape (she puts currants in her Christmas cake). 2 a type of sour, red, black, or white berry growing on certain shrubs and used in jellies or jams.
currency (noun)1 the money in present use in a country. 2 the state of being widely known (the currency of the rumors).
current (adjective)1 in general use (words no longer current). 2 belonging to the present time (current fashions). n 1 a stream of water or air moving in a certain direction. 2 a flow of electricity.
curriculum (noun)a course of study at a school, university, etc (several foreign languages on the curriculum).
curry1 (noun)a dish of meat, vegetables, etc, cooked with a spicy sauce.
curry2 (verb)to groom a horse with a brush and comb. curry favor to try to win the favor of another by pleasing (she curries favor with the teacher by giving her presents).
curseCollective noun for creditors (A curse of creditors) (see list of collective nouns)
curse (verb)1 to use bad language (not allowed to curese at home). 2 to call down harm and evil upon (cursed the man who killed her son). n 1 the wish that another may suffer harm and evil (put a curse on his enemy). 2 a great evil or cause of suffering (the curse of drug-dealing). 3 a swear word.
cursor (noun)a movable pointer on a computer screen that shows, for example, where the next piece of text would be typed.
cursory (adjective)quick, careless (give the instructions a cursory glance).
curt (adjective)1 abrupt, rude (a curt answer curt-ness/.
curtail (verb)(formal) to cut short (have to curtail our vacation cur-tale-ment/.
curtain (noun)a cloth hung up to darken, or to hide things behind it. Also vb.
curtsy (noun)a bow made by women as a respectful greeting by bending the knees with a slight lowering of the upper body (a curtsy to the queen). Also vb.
curve (noun)1 a line that is not straight and that changes direction without angles (a curve on the graph). 2 something shaped like this (curves in the road/her attractive curves). vb to bend into a curve (the road curved round the lake).
cushion (noun)1 a cloth bag filled with soft material, for sitting, leaning, or kneeling on. 2 anything that takes the force of a blow or shock (his savings acted as a cushion when he lost his job). vb to lessen a blow or shock.
custard (noun)a dish of milk, eggs, and sugar, baked or boiled.
custodian (noun)a keeper, one who takes care, especially of a museum or other public building.
custody (noun)1 care (a mother given custody of her children). 2 safekeeping (leave her jewellery in the custody of the bank). 3 imprisonment (taken into custody while awaiting trial).
custom (noun)1 the usual way of doing something (traditional country customs). 2 something done often as a habit (it was her custom to have an afternoon nap). 3 the buying of certain things at one particular shop, etc (threaten to take her custom elsewhere when the assistant was rude). 4 pl the taxes payable on goods brought into a country. 5 pl the office where such taxes are paid, or the officials collecting them.
customary (adjective)usual (the customary route for his walk).
customer (noun)one who usually buys things (in a particular shop) (the local shop with a few regular customers).
cut (verb)(cut, cutting ) 1 to make an opening with a sharp instrument (cut her hand). 2 to divide into pieces with a sharp instrument (cut up the meat). 3 to shorten or shape by cutting (cut his hair). 4 to divide a pack of cards. 5 to lessen (cut costs). 6 to refuse to look at or speak to (cut out his old friend). n 1 an opening made by cutting (a cut in the cloth). 2 a wound (a deep cut in her leg). 3 the way a thing is shaped (the cut of her coat/a haircut). 4 a lessening (a cut in their spending). 5 a piece of meat (an expensive cut of meat).
cutback (noun)a reduction in the amount of something (cutbacks in public spending).
cute (adjective)1 (informal) cunningly clever (he was too cute to be caught/a cute trick). 2 pretty, attractive, especially in a lively way.
cuticle (noun)1 the outer skin of a plant or of the body. 2 the hardened skin at the base of the fingernails and toenails.
cutlass (noun)a short, curving sword.
cutlery (noun)knives, forks, spoons, etc.
cutlet (noun)a thin slice of meat, usually from a rib or leg, a chop (lamb cutlets).
cutter (noun)1 a light sailing boat. 2 the tailor who cuts out the cloth.
cuttingCollective noun for cobblers (A cutting of cobblers) (see list of collective nouns)
cutting (adjective)hurting the feelings (a cutting remark). n 1 a piece of a plant cut off for replanting (take cuttings from the geranium). 2 a piece cut out of a newspaper (save cuttings about the pop star). 3 a passage cut through rock for a road or railway.
cuttlefish (noun)a sea creature with eight legs that gives out a black liquid when attacked.
Cyberphobiafear of computers or working on a computer (see list of phobias)
cycle (noun)1 a series of events that are regularly repeated in the same order (the cycle of the seasons). 2 a number of stories, songs, etc, about the same person or event (a Schubert song cycle). 3 (informal) a bicycle. vb to ride a bicycle (cycling to school).
cyclic (adjective)happening in cycles.
cyclist (noun)one who rides a bicycle.
cyclone (noun)a violent storm of wind that moves in a circular motion, such as a hurricane or tornado.
Cyclonologystudy of tropical cyclones, e.g. hurricanes (see list of branches of science)
Cyclophobiafear of bicycles (see list of phobias)
cygnet (noun)a young swan.
cylinder (noun)1 a solid or hollow shape with circular ends and straight sides. 2 an object or container shaped like this (a cylinder of oxygen). adj cylindrical.
cymbal (noun)one of two brass plates used as a musical instrument and struck together to make a clanging noise.
Cymophobiafear of waves or wave like motions (see list of phobias)
cynic (adjective)one who believes that people do not do things for good or kindly reasons but for their own advantage (cynics who believe that politicians are interested only in keeping their seats). Also adj. adj cynical n cynicism
Cynologystudy of dogs (see list of branches of science)
Cynophobiafear of dogs or rabies (see list of phobias)
Cyprianophobia fear of prostitutes or venereal disease (see list of phobias)
Cypridophobia fear of prostitutes or venereal disease (see list of phobias)
Cyprinophobia fear of prostitutes or venereal disease (see list of phobias)
Cypriphobia fear of prostitutes or venereal disease (see list of phobias)
cyst (noun)a small bag full of liquid that forms on or in the body (have a cyst removed).
Cytologystudy of living cells (see list of branches of science)
czar (noun)the title of former emperors of Russia, or any person having great or unlimited power. f czarina See also tsar, tzar.
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