GKNXT Encyclopedia
0 A B C D E
X Y Z #
R (volume 18)
R, r (noun)the eighteenth letter of the alphabet.
rabbi (noun)a person who is learned in the Jewish law and doctrine, a Jewish leader and teacher.
rabbit (noun)a small long-eared burrowing animal.
rabble (noun)a noisy or disorderly crowd (there was a rabble in the square demanding the president’s resignation).
rabid (adjective)1 fanatical (a rabid nationalist). 2 (of dogs) suffering from rabies.
rabies (noun)a disease, usually caught from a bite from another infected animal, that causes madness, and often death, in dogs and other animals (the bat carried the rabies virus).
raccoon, racoon (noun)an American animal of the bear family.
raceCollective noun for jockeys (A race of jockeys) (see list of collective nouns)
race car (noun),also racing car (British spelling) a car designed to race and to travel at high speed.
race1 (noun)1 a contest to see who can reach a given mark in the shortest time (a horse race). 2 a strong quick-moving current of water. vb 1 to take part in a race. 2 to run or move very quickly (race to catch the bus).
race2 (noun)1 any of the main groups into which human beings can be divided according to their physical characteristics (the white races). 2 the fact of belonging to one of these groups (discrimination on the grounds of race). 3 a group of people who share the same culture, language, etc (the Nordic races). 4 ancestors, family (a man of noble race).
racehorse (noun)a horse bred for racing.
racetrack (noun),also race course (British spelling) the ground on which races are run.
racial (adjective)having to do with a race or nation (racial characteristics/racial hatred).
Raciologystudy of racial differences (see list of branches of science)
racism (noun)prejudice or discrimination against people on the grounds of race, sometimes accompanied by violent behavior. adj racist (a racist remark). n racist.
rackCollective noun for gears (A rack of gears) (see list of collective nouns)
rack (noun)1 a frame for holding articles (a wine rack). 2 (old) instrument for torturing people by stretching their joints. vb to cause great pain or trouble to (racked by guilt). rack your brains to think as hard as possible.
racket1 (noun)a bat (usually a frame strung with criss-crossing cords) for playing tennis, badminton, etc.
racket2 (noun)1 an uproar, a din (kept awake by a racket from the party next door). 2 a dishonest method of making a lot of money (in the drug racket).
racketeer (noun)a person who makes money by dishonest or violent methods. n racketeering
racoonsee raccoon.
radar (noun)the sending out of radio signals to determine the position of ships, airplanes, etc.
radial (adjective)1 of or in rays. 2 arranged like spokes.
radiance (noun)brightness, brilliance (the radiance of the sun/the radiance of her smile).
radiant (adjective)1 showing great joy or happiness. 2 sending out rays of light or heat (radiant sun/radiant heat). 3 glowing. 4 shining.
radiate (verb)1 to send out rays of light or heat (heaters radiated warmth). 2 to shine with (a face radiating happiness) 3 to send out or spread from a central point (roads radiating from center city). n radiation
radiator (noun)1 an apparatus (an electric or gas fire, hot water pipes, etc) for warming a room by radiating heat. 2 an apparatus for cooling the engine of an automobile.
radical (adjective)1 having to do with the root or basic nature (radical faults in the system). 2 seeking great political, social, or economic change (a radical party). 3 very thorough (radical changes). n a person who desires to make far-reaching changes in society or in methods of government. adv radically
radiisee radius.
radio (noun)1 the sending or receiving of sounds through the air by electric waves. 2 an apparatus for receiving sound broadcast through the air by electric waves. 3 the radio broadcasting industry.
radioactive (adjective)giving off rays of force or energy which can be dangerous but which can be used in medicine, etc. n radioactivity
Radiobiologystudy of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter (see list of branches of science)
Radiochemistrystudy of ordinary chemical reactions under radioactive circumstances (see list of branches of science)
radiographer (noun)a person who is trained to take X-ray photographs.
radiography (noun)the obtaining of photographs by X-rays.
Radiologystudy of X-rays and their medical applications (see list of branches of science)
radiology (noun)the study of radioactivity as a means of treating disease. n radiologist
Radiophobiafear of radiation, x-rays (see list of phobias)
radiotherapy (noun)the treatment of disease by rays (e.g. X-rays). n radiotherapist
radish (noun)a plant with an edible hot-tasting red root.
radium (noun)a rare metallic substance that gives off rays of heat and light made use of in the treatment of disease.
radius (noun)(pl radii ) 1 a straight line from the center of a circle to any point on the circumference. 2 a bone in the forearm.
radon (noun)a radioactive gas that can be produced from the earth and rock.
raffleCollective noun for turkeys (A raffle of turkeys) (see list of collective nouns)
raffle (noun)a sale in which people buy tickets for an article that is given to the person whose name or number is drawn by lottery. vb to sell by raffle.
raftCollective noun for puffins (A raft of puffins) (see list of collective nouns)
raftCollective noun for swimmers (A raft of swimmers) (see list of collective nouns)
raft (noun)logs fastened together to make a floating platform or a flat boat without sides.
ragCollective noun for colts (A rag of colts) (see list of collective nouns)
rag (noun)a torn or tattered piece of cloth, a left-over piece of material (she always used a rag to dust the furniture). npl old tattered clothes (children clad in rags).
rageCollective noun for maidens (A rage of maidens) (see list of collective nouns)
rageCollective noun for teeth (A rage of teeth) (see list of collective nouns)
rage (noun)1 violent anger, fury. 2 inspiration. 3 something very popular or fashionable at a certain time. vb 1 to be furious with anger. 2 to behave or talk violently.
ragged (adjective)1 torn or tattered. 2 wearing old tattered clothing. 3 rough-edged.
ragtime (noun)a highly syncopated form of music of African-American origin, an early form of jazz.
raid (noun)a sudden quick attack made by a group intending to return to their starting point (a raid behind enemy lines). Also vb. n raider
rail (noun)1 a level or sloping bar of wood or metal linking up a line of posts, banisters, etc (hold on to the ship’s rail). 2 a strip of metal molded to a certain shape and laid down as part of a railroad track or streetcar line (the rail to Washington is blocked by snow). vb 1 to enclose with railings. 2 to send by railroad.
railing (noun)a fence made of posts some distance apart linked together by crossbars or a rail.
railroad (noun),also railway (British spelling) a track laid with parallel metal strips so molded that a train can run on them.
rain (noun)moisture falling from the clouds in drops. vb 1 to fall in drops (it was raining heavily). 2 to fall or throw down in large numbers (arrows raining down). n raindrop , rainwater
rainbowCollective noun for reasons (A rainbow of reasons) (see list of collective nouns)
rainbow (noun)a semicircular colored band that often appears in the sky when the sun shines through raindrops.
rainfall (noun)the amount of rain that falls in a certain place during a certain length of time (exceed the average rainfall).
rainforest (noun)a dense tropical forest where there is a high rainfall.
rainy (adjective)wet, raining (a rainy day/rainy weather).
raise (verb)1 to lift upward, to move to a higher position (raise the flag high). 2 to breed (raise pigs). 3 to make higher (raise the wall a few meters). 4 to cause to grow, to cultivate (raise wheat). 5 to increase in amount, size, etc (raise prices). 6 to begin to talk about (raise a new point). 7 to collect (raise money for charity). 8 to make louder (raise her voice in anger). 9 to give up (raise a siege). n 1 an increase (a raise in pay). 2 an upward slope. 3 a small hill.
raisin (noun)a dried grape (cakes with raisins).
rake (noun)a metal or wooden toothed crossbar fixed to a pole and used for scraping the ground, pulling together cut grass or hay, smoothing the soil, etc. vb 1 to scrape, pull together, smooth, etc, with a rake (rake up dead leaves). 2 to search very carefully (rake through his papers for evidence of guilt).
rally (verb)1 to bring or come together again in one body (rally the troops/troops rallying around the general). 2 to regain some of your strength, health, etc, after weakness or illness (a patient who suddenly rallied after the procedure). n 1 a coming together in large numbers. 2 recovery of strength, health, good spirits, etc.
ram (noun)1 a male sheep. 2 any heavy instrument used for breaking down walls, doors, etc (a battering ram). vb (rammed , ramming ) 1 to run into with great force. 2 to push down, into or onto, with great force (ram the post into the ground). 3 (of a ship) to strike another ship head-on in order to make a hole in its side. 4 to strike violently.
RAM (noun)(an acronym for Random Access Memory) memory that is lost when a computer is switched off.
Ramadan (noun)the ninth month of the Muslim year during which Muslims fast between the hours of sunrise and sunset.
ramble (verb)1 to change from one subject to another in a foolish, purposeless way (ramble on about his youth/rambling after the knock on his head). 2 to walk as and where you like for pleasure (rambling through the woods). 3 to grow in all directions (rambling roses). n a walk taken for pleasure.
rambler (noun)1 a wanderer. 2 a climbing plant, especially a type of rose.
ramification (noun)a consequence, especially one of many and an indirect one (unable to foresee the ramifications of his actions).
ramp (noun)a slope (a ramp to allow cars to drive on to the ship).
rampage (verb)to rush about, to rage (children rampaging about/elephants rampaging through the jungle). n great anger or excitement.
rampant (adjective)1 uncontrolled (rampant violence). 2 growing uncontrollably (rampant weeds). 3 in heraldry, standing on the hind legs (a lion rampant).
rampart (noun)a defensive wall or mound of earth.
ramshackle (adjective)broken-down, nearly falling down (ramshackle property).
ranch (noun)a large cattle farm.
rancher (noun)a person who owns or works on a ranch.
rancid (adjective)bad, unpleasant to taste or smell (rancid butter).
random (adjective)without plan or purpose (ask a random sample of people). at random without plan or purpose (choose people at random).
rangeCollective noun for hills (A range of hills) (see list of collective nouns)
rangeCollective noun for mountains (A range of mountains) (see list of collective nouns)
rangeCollective noun for ovens (A range of ovens) (see list of collective nouns)
range (verb)1 to extend (an area ranging from the city boundaries to the next town). 2 to vary between certain limits (ages ranging from 10 to 70). 3 to set in a line, to place in order (range the books on the shelf). 4 (formal) to wander (country children ranging over the hills). n 1 a variety (a range of exotic plants). 2 extent (voice range). 3 a line or row, e.g. of mountains. 4 the distance between a gun and the fall of the shot, the distance over which an object can be sent or thrown, sound carried, heard, etc (out of hearing range). 5 an area of land where animals roam and graze. 6 a piece of ground for firing practice. 7 an enclosed kitchen fireplace for cooking and baking (a stew simmering on the range).
ranger (noun)a person in charge of a national park or forest.
Ranidaphobiafear of frogs (see list of phobias)
rank1 (noun)1 a position of authority; a level of importance (promoted to the rank of colonel). 2 a social class (the upper ranks of society). 3 a row or line (ranks of police officers keeping back the crowds). 4 a row of soldiers standing side by side. vb 1 to put or be in a certain class or in an order of merit. 2 to arrange in a row or line. rank and file the common people.
rank2 (adjective)1 very bad (the rank smell of rotting meat/rank stupidity). 2 overgrown (a garden rank with weeds). 3 growing thickly and untidily (rank weeds).
rankle (verb)to go on causing anger or dislike (his defeat still rankles with him).
ransack (verb)1 to search thoroughly (burglars ransacking houses looking for money). 2 to plunder (enemy soldiers ransacking the town).
ransom (noun)a sum of money paid to free someone from captivity (asked for a ransom in exchange for their kidnaped children). vb to pay to obtain freedom, to redeem.
rant (verb)to talk in a loud, uncontrolled manner, often using words for fine sound rather than meaning (ranting on about how badly he was treated). Also n. n ranter.
rap (noun)1 a quick light blow, a knock (a rap on the door). 2 a style of popular music in which (usually rhyming) words are spoken in a rhythmic chant over an instrumental backing. 3 (informal) talk, conversation.4 (informal) a reputation (a bum rap). vb (rapped , rapping ) 1 to give a rap to (rap the door). 2 (informal) to chat, converse. 3 to perform a rap. not worth a rap worthless (a promise not worth a rap). n rapper.
rapid (adjective)very quick-moving (rapid changes at a rapid pace). n (usually pl) a quick-flowing stretch of river running downhill. n rapidity adv rapidly
rapier (noun)a long thin sword.
rappel (verb)to go down a very steep slope, such as a cliff face or a very tall building, using a rope secured at the top and passed round the body in a kind of harness.
rapport (noun)a friendly relationship between people who understand each other.
rapt (adjective)giving your whole mind (with rapt attention).
rapture (noun)(formal) delight, great joy (in raptures at the news of their success).
rapturous (adjective)full of delight, very happy.
rare (adjective)1 uncommon, unusual. 2 valuable. 3 very good. 4 very lightly cooked. 5 not thick. n rareness
rarefied (adjective)thin; (of air) with less oxygen than usual (the rarefied air of high altitudes).
rarely (adverb)seldom, not often (we rarely see them).
rarity (noun)1 a thing seldom met with (such birds are rarities in this area). 2 rareness (stamps valuable because of their rarity).
rascal (noun)1 a rogue, a scoundrel (a rascal who deserved to be sent to prison). 2 a naughty boy (a rascal who tries to avoid going to school). adj rascally
rashCollective noun for dermatologists (A rash of dermatologists) (see list of collective nouns)
rash1 (noun)a redness of the skin caused by illness (a measles rash).
rash2 (adjective)1 acting without forethought (she tends to be rash). 2 hasty (a rash decision). 3 foolishly daring (a rash action). adv rashly n rashness
rasher (noun)a thin slice of bacon.
raspCollective noun for lawnmowers (A rasp of lawnmowers) (see list of collective nouns)
rasp (noun)1 a file with a very rough face. 2 a harsh, grating sound. vb 1 to rub with a rasp. 2 to make a harsh, grating sound (a rasping voice/metal rasping on metal). 3 to say in a harsh, angry voice.
raspberry (noun)1 a common shrub. 2 its edible red berry (raspberry preserve).
Rastafarian (noun)a member of a religious group that originated in Jamaica and worships the late Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie.
rat (noun)a gnawing animal like, but larger than, the mouse. vb (ratted , ratting ) to inform on someone.
rat race (noun)the competitive, aggressive struggle to survive and be successful in the modern world (she has opted out of the rat race).
ratchet (noun)a toothed wheel with which a catch automatically engages as it is turned, preventing it from being turned in the reverse direction.
rate (noun)1 the amount of one thing measured by its relation to another (the death rate is the number of people who die yearly to every thousand of the population ray-ta-bul/.
rather (adverb)1 preferably, more willingly (she would rather die than marry him). 2 fairly, quite (she is rather talented). 3 more exactly, more truly (she is thoughtless rather than cruel).
rating (noun)1 value or rank according to some kind of classification (his rating as an international tennis player). 2 in the navy, a sailor who is not an officer.
ratio (noun)one number or amount considered in relation or proportion to another (the ratio of students to teachers).
ration (noun)1 a fixed amount of something allowed every so often (the child’s weekly candy ration). npl (old) food. vb to limit to fixed amounts (rationed gasoline to 30 liters per person).
rational (adjective)1 having the power to think things out (human beings are rational animals). 2 reasonable, sensible (he made a rational decision). adv rationally
rationalist (noun)a person who tries to find natural causes for all things, including miracles. n rationalism
rationalize (verb),also rationalise (British spelling) 1 to try to find reasons for all actions. 2 to explain as due to natural causes. 3 to reorganize a business firm in order to improve efficiency.
rattle (verb)1 to make a number of short quick noises one after the other (windows rattling in the storm). 2 to shake something so as to cause such noises (collectors rattling their cans). 3 to speak or say quickly (rattle off the instructions so that no-one understood). n 1 an instrument or toy for rattling (a baby’s rattle). 2 a rattling sound (the rattle of milk bottles).
rattlesnake (noun)an American snake able to make a rattling sound with horny rings on its tail.
raucous (adjective)hoarse, harsh-sounding (shouted his instructions in a raucous voice).
ravage (verb)to lay waste, to plunder, to destroy far and wide (crops ravaged by storms). n damage, destruction.
rave (verb)1 to talk wildly or madly (he was very ill and was raving in his sleep). 2 (informal) to praise very highly (critics raving about his new play).
raven (noun)a bird of prey of the crow family. adj black (her raven hair).
ravenous (adjective)very hungry (ravenous after their long walk). adv ravenously
ravine (noun)a narrow valley with steep sides.
ravioli (noun)an Italian dish consisting of small squares of pasta with a meat or vegetable filling.
ravish (verb)1 to take or carry off by force. 2 to delight (ravished by her beauty).
ravishing (adjective)delightful, wonderful (her ravishing beauty). adv ravishingly
raw (adjective)1 uncooked (raw meat). 2 in its natural state (raw cotton/a raw recruit). 3 sore. 4 (of part of the body) uncovered by skin, scraped (raw wounds). 5 cold and damp (a raw day).
ray1 (noun)1 a line of light, heat, etc, getting broader as it goes further from its origin (the sun’s rays). 2 a little, a very small amount (a ray of hope).
ray2 (noun)a species of flatfish.
rayon (noun)artificial silk.
raze (verb)to destroy completely, to wipe out (cities razed to the ground by enemy armies).
razor (noun)an implement for shaving hair (he shaves every day with an electric razor).
razorblade (noun)a very sharp blade for use in certain kinds of razor.
reach (verb)1 to stretch out (reach out a hand). 2 to stretch out a hand or arm for some purpose (reach for a book). 3 to obtain by stretching out for (unable to reach the book on the highest shelf). 4 to arrive at, to get as far as (reach the summit of the mountain). 5 to pass with the hand (reach him the salt). n 1 the distance you can extend the hand from the body (the telephone was within reach). 2 a distance that can be easily traveled (an airport within easy reach). 3 a straight stretch of river (the upper reaches of the stream).
react (verb)1 to act, behave, or change in a certain way as a result of something said or done (react badly to criticism). 2 to do or think the opposite (react against their strict upbringing).
reaction (noun)1 action or behavior given rise to by something said or done (his reaction to the defeat). 2 opposition to progress (reaction against computerization). 3 in chemistry, the change in a substance when certain tests are made on it.
reactionary (adjective)wanting to return to things as they were before, opposed to progress (reactionary older writers). Also n.
read (verb)(pt, pp read ) 1 to look at and understand (read the instructions). 2 to speak aloud what is written or printed (read out the message in the letter). 3 in computing, to extract (data) from a storage system. 4 to study (reading English at university). 5 to be written or worded (his letter reads as follows).
readable (adjective)easy to read, interesting.
reader (noun)1 a person who enjoys reading (children who are not readers). 2 a person whose job it is to report on manuscripts sent in to publishers or to read and correct proofs. 3 a reading book for schools (a basic reader). n readership
readily (adverb)willingly, cheerfully (she readily agreed).
reading (noun)1 the study of books (reading is her main hobby). 2 words read out from a book or written paper (readings from the Talmud). 3 an explanation of what is written (there is more than one possible reading of the passage). 4 the figure recorded on an instrument.
readjust (verb)1 to put right or in the proper place again (readjust the driving mirror). 2 to make changes needed for altered circumstances (try to readjust to life at home after life overseas). n readjustment
ready (adjective)1 prepared and fit for use (the food is ready). 2 quick (people of ready will). 3 willing (always ready to help people). n readiness
real (adjective)1 actually existing (real life). 2 true, genuine, not false or fake (real gold/his real reason). 3 utter, complete (a real idiot). adv very (a real nice guy).
real estate (noun)property consisting of land and buildings. real-estate agent a person who sells property.
realism (noun)1 the belief that only objects perceptible by the senses actually exist. 2 trying to make works of art as true to life as possible (the school of realism). 3 the habit of taking a sensible, practical view of life (forced to think of the future with realism).
realist (noun)a person who believes in realism.
realistic (adjective)1 lifelike (a realistic painting). 2 taking a sensible, practical view of life (a realistic idea of what job he is qualified for). adv realistically
reality (noun)1 that which actually exists (prefer dreams to reality). 2 truth. 3 things as they actually are (the realities of life).
realize (verb),also realise (British spelling) 1 to understand fully (they realize that he is telling the truth). 2 to make real (realize ambitions). 3 to sell for money (realize their assets). n realization , also realisation (British spelling)
really (adverb)1 actually, in fact (describes things as they really are). 2 very (a really pleasant day).
realmCollective noun for kingfishers (A realm of kingfishers) (see list of collective nouns)
realm (noun)1 (formal) a kingdom. 2 one particular aspect or sphere of life (the realm of sport).
realty (noun)real estate.
reamCollective noun for paper (A ream of paper) (see list of collective nouns)
reap (verb)1 to cut down (crops), to gather in. 2 to receive as a reward (reap the benefits of hard work).
reaper (noun)1 a person who reaps. 2 a machine for reaping.
reappear (verb)to appear again. n reappearance
rear1 (noun)1 the part behind (the rear of the building). 2 the back part of an army or fleet.
rear2 (verb)1 to bring up (rear children). 2 to breed (rearing pigs). 3 to stand on the hind legs (the horse reared up). 4 to raise (the horse reared its head).
reason (noun)1 cause for acting or believing (the reason for her sadness the reason why she left). 2 the power to think things out (lose his reason). 3 good sense (he would listen to reason). vb 1 to think out step by step (we reasoned that they would attack at dawn). 2 to try to convince by arguing (reason them into being less hasty).
reasonable (adjective)1 sensible (a reasonable suggestion). 2 willing to listen to another’s arguments (a reasonable person). 3 not excessive (a reasonable amount to drink). adv reasonably
reasoning (noun)1 use of the power of reason. 2 arguments used to convince (find his reasoning unconvincing).
reassure (verb)to take away the doubts or fears of (reassuring the child that his mother would soon return). n reassurance
rebate (noun)part of a payment given back to the payer (a taxt rebate).
rebel (noun)a person who revolts against authority. vb (rebelled , rebelling ) 1 to take up arms (against) (rebel against the army leaders). 2 to refuse to obey those in authority (children rebelling against strict teachers).
rebellion (noun)open resistance to or fighting against authority.
rebellious (adjective)1 ready to rebel, disobedient (at a rebellious age). 2 fighting against authority (the rebellious troops).
rebirth (noun)a revival of something.
reboot (verb)to start a computer again (you have to reboot after instaling the fonts).
rebound (verb)to bounce back off, to spring back (the ball rebounded off the wall). Also n.
rebuke (verb)to scold, to find fault with (rebuked the child for being naughty). n a scolding.
rebut (verb)(rebutted , rebutting ) to refuse to accept as true (rebut their accusation). n rebuttal
recall (verb)1 to remember (unable to recall his name). 2 to call back (recall certain cars because of a mechanical defect). n an order to return (the recall of the ambassador).
recede (verb)1 to move back (his hair is receding at the front). 2 to slope back (her chin recedes).
receipt (noun)1 a written statement that a sum of money or an article has been received (ask for a receipt when you pay the check). 2 the act of receiving (her receipt of the goods).
receive (verb)1 to come into possession of, to get (receive a letter/receive good news). 2 to welcome (receive guests).
receiver (noun)1 a person who accepts stolen goods from a thief. 2 the earpiece of a telephone. 3 a radio set.
recent (adjective)not long past (recent events ree-sint-lee/.
receptacle (noun)a place or vessel for holding things (a large receptacle such as a bucket).
reception (noun)1 the act of receiving or being received, the welcoming of guests (a room in the building for the reception of visitors/his reception of the news). 2 a formal party (invited to a reception for the ambassador). 3 welcome (received a warm reception). 4 the quality of radio or television signals.
receptionist (noun)a person who is employed by a hotel, doctor, business, etc, to receive guests, clients, callers, etc.
receptive (adjective)quick to learn (a receptive mind). n receptivity
recess (noun)1 a break from work or study (school recess/parliament in recess). 2 part of a room set back into the wall (an old-fashioned room with a recess for a bookcase).
recession (noun)a period of reduced trade and business activity (people losing their jobs in the recession).
recipe (noun)instructions on how to make or prepare a certain dish (a recipe for chocolate cake).
recipient (noun)a person who receives (the recipient of good news).
recital (noun)1 a detailed account (a recital of the events at the party). 2 a public musical performance, especially by one performer (a piano recital).
recitation (noun)1 a reciting of something. 2 that which is recited (e.g. a poem).
recite (verb)to repeat aloud from memory (children asked to recite a poem).
reckless (adjective)rash, heedless of danger (a reckless young man rek-less-lee/.
reckon (verb)1 to think or consider (I reckon she is the best worker in the company). 2 to guess, to estimate (we reckon they owe us $100). 3 (formal) to count (reckon the cost).
reckoning (noun)1 a calculation, estimate (by our reckoning we should be there by midnight). 2 (old) a settlement of accounts, a bill.
reclaim (verb)1 to demand the return of (to reclaim their baggage). 2 to bring under cultivation waste land, land covered by the sea, etc. n reclamation
recline (noun)to sit or lie back at your ease, to rest (recline on a couch).
recluse (noun)a person who prefers to live away from human society (he has become a recluse since his wife’s death). adj reclusive
recognition (noun)1 act of recognizing (he was so sick that he showed no recognition when his family arrived). 2 acknowledgment (a medal given in recognition of his courage).
recognizable adj, also recognisable (British spelling)that may be recognized (she was scarcely recognizable after going to the beauty salon).
recognize (verb),also recognise (British spelling) 1 to know again (recognize an old friend). 2 to greet or salute (she refused to recognize her ex-husband). 3 to admit (recognize his mistakes). 4 to accept (qualification not recognized overseas). 5 to reward (recognize the man’s courage by giving him a medal).
recoil (verb)1 to go suddenly backward in horror, fear, etc (recoil in horror at the sight of the corpse). 2 (of a gun) to move sharply backward on firing. n 1 a shrinking backward. 2 the backward kick of a gun on firing.
recollect (verb)to remember (recollect a previous incident).
recollection (noun)1 memory. 2 something remembered.
recommend (verb)1 to speak in praise of, to suggest that something or someone is good, suitable, etc (recommend her for promotion/recommend the medicine as a cure for sore throats). 2 to advise (his teacher recommended him to apply for university).
recommendation (noun)1 act of praising or speaking in favor of (his recommendation of him as a reliable employee). 2 a letter praising a person’s good points.
reconcile (verb)1 to make or become friendly again (they did not become reconciled till several years after the quarrel). 2 to make (yourself) accept something new or strange (try to reconcile yourself to the changes).
reconciliation (noun)a renewal of friendship.
reconsider (verb)to think about again with a view to changing your mind (reconsider his resignation). n reconsideration
reconstruct (verb)1 to rebuild (reconstruct damaged buildings). 2 to try to build up a description or picture of, to work out exactly what happened when all the facts are not known (police reconstructing the crime). n reconstruction
record (verb)1 to put down in writing (record the score in a notebook). 2 to preserve sounds or images by mechanical means, on a CD, tape, etc (record the radio concert re-curd/ 1 a recorded account. 2 a book containing written records, a register (parish records). 3 the best performance yet known in any type of contest. 4 a disk for playing on a CD player or phonograph. 5 what is known about a person’s past (a good work record). 6 a criminal record (his record was well known to the police).
recorder (noun)1 a person who keeps registers or records. 2 a judge in certain cities. 3 a simple form of flute (play the recorder).
recount (verb)1 to tell in detail (recount their adventures). 2 to count again. n recount another counting, e.g. of votes after an election.
recoup (verb)to get back all or part of a loss (recoup the cost of the car repairs).
recover (verb)1 to cover again (recover the couch). 2 to get back, to regain (recover their strength). 3 to make or become better after sickness or weakness (the accident victim is unlikely to recover).
recovery (noun)1 a return to health after sickness (a speedy recovery from flu). 2 the regaining of anything after losing some or all of it.
recreation (noun)1 rest and amusement after work (find some form of recreation). 2 a sport, a pastime (recreations such as gardening).
recriminate (verb)to accuse in return, to accuse your accuser.
recrimination (noun)the act of recriminating, a counter-accusation (his accusation of his classmates led to recrimination).
recruit (noun)1 a soldier who has just joined the army. 2 a new member (the latest recruits to the advertizing campaign). vb to enlist new soldiers, members (try to recruit new members). n recruitment
rectangle (noun)a four-sided figure with all its angles right angles and one pair of sides longer than the other. adj rectangular
rectify (verb)1 to put right, to correct (rectify the mistake). 2 (chemistry) to purify. n rectification
Rectophobiafear of rectum or rectal diseases (see list of phobias)
rectum (noun)the part of the large intestine that leeads to the anus.
recuperate (verb)to regain health or strength after illness (take a vacation to recuperate). n recuperation
recur (verb)(recurred , recurring ) to happen again and again (a mistake that kept recurring). n recurrence
recurrent (adjective)happening or appearing again and again (a recurrent dream).
recycle (verb)to put something through some kind of process so that it can be used again (newspapers can be placed in that container to be recycled).
red (adjective)1 of a color like blood (a red coat/hands red with cold). 2 of a color that varies between a golden brown and a reddish brown (red hair). 3 (informal) communist. n 1 the color red. 2 a communist. see red to become suddenly very angry (she saw red when the child disobeyed).
Red Cross , Red Crescent (noun)an international organization that looks after sick and wounded in time of war and protects the rights of prisoners of war.
red herring (noun)something mentioned that takes attention away from the subject being discussed (he said something to the police that made them follow a red herring).
red tape (noun)excessive attention to rules and regulations so that business is delayed.
redden (verb)1 to make or become red (redden her lips). 2 to blush (reddening in embarrassment).
reddish (adjective)slightly red (a reddish sky).
redeem (verb)1 to buy back (redeeming the goods that he had pawned). 2 to buy freedom for (redeem the hostages by paying the ransom). 3 to carry out (a promise) (the government being asked to redeem its election promises). 4 to make up for (the lead actor’s performance redeemed a bad production). 5 to save from the punishment due to sin.
redeeming (adjective)canceling out bad by good (his one redeeming feature).
redemption (noun)the act of redeeming.
red-handed (adjective)in the very act of doing wrong (caught red-handed stealing the money).
redhead (noun)a person who has reddish-brown hair.
redoubtable (adjective)to be feared, deserving respect (a redoubtable opponent).
reduce (verb)1 to make less, smaller, or less heavy (reducing prices ri-duc-shun/.
redundant (adjective)more than necessary (redundant words). n redundancy
reed (noun)1 a tall grass-like water plant with a hollow stem. 2 that part of certain wind instruments that vibrates and so causes the sound when the instrument is blown.
reedy (adjective)1 covered with reeds. 2 high-pitched and thin (a reedy voice).
reef knot (noun)a symmetrically tied double knot.
reef1 (noun)1 a ridge of rock or sand just above or just below the surface of the water (a ship stuck on a reef). 2 a crack in a rock containing gold.
reef2 (noun)one of the parts of a sail that can be rolled or folded up. vb to roll or fold up the reefs of a sail.
reek (noun)a strong unpleasant smell (the reek of burnt grass). vb 1 to give off a smell, especially an unpleasant one (breath reeking of garlic). 2 to show or suggest strongly something bad or unpleasant (a situation reeking of bribery).
reel (noun)1 a frame or roller around which string, thread, photographic film, etc, may be wound. 2 a lively Scottish dance. vb 1 to wind on to a reel. 2 to stagger (people reeling down the street). reel off to tell without stopping or hesitating (able to reel off the names of every person at the meeting).
refer (verb)(referred , referring ) 1 to make mention of (refer to the help of his parents in his speech). 2 to advise to consult elsewhere (the doctor referred her to a specialist). 3 to look up a certain item in a book (refer to a dictionary). 4 to pass (a matter) on to another for decision (refer the complaint to his manager).
referee (noun)1 a person who is chosen to give a clear decision in case of doubt (take the dispute to a referee). 2 in games, a person who sees that the rules are kept (the football referee).
reference (noun)1 mention (there was a reference in his speech to his parents’ help). 2 directions as to where to find certain items, passages, etc, in a book (a map reference). 3 a person who is ready to supply information about the character, behavior, etc, of another (his former schoolteacher acted as a referee for his job application). 4 a letter giving information about the character, behavior, etc, of a person who applies for a job (they refused to give her a reference as her work was so bad).
reference book (noun)a book (e.g. a dictionary like this one) that supplies information.
refill (verb)to fill again (refill your cup). n refill the act of refilling something (free refills of coffee).
refine (verb)1 to purify (refined oil). 2 to make more polite and civilized (a school supposed to produce refined young ladies). adj refined
refinery (noun)a place for purifying sugar, oil, etc.
reflect (verb)1 (of a mirror) to show the image of. 2 to throw back, especially rays of light or heat. 3 to think about carefully (reflect on the best course of action). 4 to be a cause (of praise or blame) for (his behavior reflects badly on his parents).
reflectionCollective noun for narcissists (A reflection of narcissists) (see list of collective nouns)
reflection (noun)1 the image seen in a mirror, etc (her reflection in the store window). 2 the act of reflecting (light, an image, etc). 3 a thought, deep or careful thought (on reflection I think we will go). 4 blame (his bad conduct is a reflection on his parents).
reflective (adjective)thoughtful (in a reflective mood).
reflector (noun)a polished surface for reflecting light or heat.
reflex (adjective)automatic (jerking your leg when the kneecap is tapped is a reflex action). n an unintentional movement of the body caused by something outside it.
reflex angle (noun)an angle between 180 degrees and 360 degrees.
Reflexologystudy of reflexes (see list of branches of science)
reform (verb)1 to make or become better (reform the system). 2 to give up bad habits (a criminal who promised to reform). n a change for the better. n reformer
reformation (noun)a thorough change for the better.
refract (verb)to change the direction of (a ray of light, sound, etc). n refraction
refrain1 (verb)to hold (yourself) back from doing something (refrained from saying what they thought).
refrain2 (noun)a line or phrase that is repeated several times in a song or poem; a chorus.
refresh (verb)to give new strength, energy, power, etc (felt refreshed after a night’s sleep). adj refreshing adv refreshingly
refreshment (noun)(often pl) a light meal, a snack, a drink (provide refreshments for the party guests).
refrigerate (verb)to make cold, to freeze (refrigerate the meat to keep it fresh). n refrigeration
refrigerator (noun)an apparatus for preserving food, etc, by keeping it cold.
refuel (verb)(of an aircraft or a ship) to take on more fuel.
refuge (noun)a place of shelter from danger or distress (a national wildlife refuge).
refugee (noun)a person who is fleeing from danger, a person who leaves his or her country to seek shelter in another (refugees from the famine area).
refund (verb)to repay. n refund 1 the act of refunding. 2 the amount refunded (get a refund for the faulty goods).
refurbish (verb)to redecorate or restore (the restaurant was completely refurbished).
refusal (noun)act of refusing (their refusal of the invitation/his refusal to go).
refuse1 (verb)1 not to accept (refuse the invitation). 2 to say that you will not do or give something (refuse to plead guilty).
refuse2see garbage.
refute (verb)to prove (an argument) wrong or that something is not the case (refuting the suggestion that he was wrong). n refutation
regain (verb)1 to get possession of again (regain the throne). 2 to reach again (regain the shore).
regal (adjective)of or like a king, royal, magnificent (a regal procession).
regale (verb)1 to supply with plenty of food and drink. 2 to entertain (regaling them with stories of his adventures).
regalia (noun, plural)objects worn or carried as signs of royalty (e.g. a crown, etc) or high office.
regard (verb)1 to consider (regarded as a nuisance by his teachers). 2 (formal) to look at (he regarded her questioningly). n 1 respect (she is held in high regard). 2 (formal) attention (have regard to the icy roads). npl good wishes (send your mother my regards).
regarding (preposition)concerning (suggestions regarding the new plans).
regardless (adverb)paying no attention, not caring about (regardless of cost).
regatta (noun)a race meeting for boats and yachts.
regency (noun)1 rule by a regent. 2 the office of regent. 3 the period during which a regent rules.
regenerate (verb)to improve after a period of worsening, to give fresh faith or energy to (try to regenerate the club by bringing in young members). n regeneration
regent (noun)a person who governs during the youth, absence, or illness of a monarch.
reggae (noun)a type of popular music of West Indian origin.
regime (noun)a method or system of government (a military regime).
regimentCollective noun for hypocrites (A regiment of hypocrites) (see list of collective nouns)
regiment (noun)a body of soldiers commanded by a colonel, an army unit consisting of several battalions.
regimental (adjective)having to do with a regiment (a regimental mascot).
regimentation (noun)strict organization and control.
region (noun)1 a part of a country, often a large area of land (the coastal region). 2 neighborhood (a pain in the region of his kidney reej-nal/.
register (noun)1 an official list (a register of qualified doctors). 2 a book in which records (e.g. of births, deaths, school attendance, etc) are kept. 3 the distance from the highest to the lowest note of a singing voice or musical instrument. vb 1 to write down in a register (register a complaint). 2 to give details to an official for writing in a register (register the baby’s birth). 3 to pay extra postage to ensure that a letter or parcel reaches its destination safely (register the parcel containing the medicine). 4 to show (what one is feeling) (her face registered dismay).
registrar (noun)an official who keeps a register.
registration (noun)act of registering.
registry (noun)an office where official records of births, deaths, marriages, etc, are kept.
regress (verb)to move backward (the patient’s condition is regressing, according to the doctor). adj regressive
regression (noun)backward movement, a falling away.
regret (verb)(regretted , regretting ) 1 to be sorry for what one has said or done (regrets his foolish action). 2 to remember with sorrow (he deeply regrets his criminal days). n sorrow, grief (feel regret for his foolish actions ri-gret-ful ri-gret-fu-lee/.
regrettable (adjective)unfortunate, unwelcome (it is regrettable that such behavior is allowed). adv regrettably
regular (adjective)1 normal, usual (his regular route). 2 done always in the same way or at the same time (regular habits). 3 occurring acting, etc with equal amounts of space, time, etc between (a regular pulse re-gyu-la-ri-tee re-gyu-lar-lee/.
regular army (noun)that part of the army in which people who wish to make soldiering their career are kept in training.
regulate (verb)1 to control (regulate expenditure). 2 to alter (a machine) until it is working properly (regulate a watch).
regulation (noun)a rule, an order, an instruction (obey the club’s regulations). adj as laid down in the rules (regulation sportswear).
regulator (noun)1 a lever by which you can control a machine. 2 a person who controls.
regurgitate (verb)(formal) 1 to throw up again from the stomach (the sick dog regurgitated its food). 2 to repeat without change (simply regurgitating what his teacher told him).
rehabilitate (verb)to bring back to a normal life or normal standards of behavior by treatment or instruction (rehabilitate criminals ree-ha-bi-li-tay-shun/.
rehearsal (noun)a practice before a performance (the last rehearsal before the opening night).
rehearse (verb)1 to practice, especially in preparation for public performance (rehearse for the performance). 2 (formal) to repeat aloud, to give a list of (rehearse the various rules).
reign (noun)1 rule. 2 the time during which a king or queen has ruled. vb 1 to rule as a sovereign. 2 to exist (silence reigned).
reimburse (verb)to repay what someone has lost or spent (have his travel expenses reimbursed by the company). n reimbursement
rein (noun)1 the strap by which a driver or rider directs a horse. 2 control (keep a tight rein on expenses). vb to check or control with the rein (rein in the horse).
reindeer (noun)a deer found in northern parts of America and Europe.
reinforce (verb)1 to make stronger (reinforce the elbows of the coat with leather patches). 2 to supply with more soldiers, helpers, etc (reinforce the aid workers with new recruits).
reinforcement (noun)the act of reinforcing. npl more or fresh troops, etc (the aid workers require reinforcements).
reinstate (verb)to put back in a former position (he was fired from his post but has been reinstated). n reinstatement
reiterate (verb)to repeat again and again (reiterate the instructions). n reiteration
reject (verb)1 to refuse to accept (reject the criticism). 2 to throw back or away (reject goods that were not up to standard). n someone or something that has been rejected. n rejection
rejoice (verb)to be glad or joyful, to make glad, to express your joy (the team rejoicing at their victory).
rejoicing (noun)a feeling or expression of joy. npl celebrations.
rejuvenate (verb)to make feel young again. n rejuvenation
relapse (verb)to fall back into evil or sickness after improving (she was getting better after surgery but she has suffered a relapse). Also n
relate (verb)1 to show or see the connection between (the rise in crime may be related to poverty). 2 (formal) to tell (related the story of his escape). adj related
relation (noun)1 a person who belongs to the same family by birth or marriage (invite all their relations to the wedding). 2 a connection (a possible relation between crime and unemployment). 3 (formal) a story, an account. n relationship
relative (adjective)1 considered in comparison with others (the relative methods of the two systems). 2 having to do with (facts relating to the present situation). 3 (formal) (in grammar) referring to an earlier word in the sentence. n a person who belongs to the same family, by birth or marriage (relatives on the mother’s side).
relative pronoun (gram)a pronoun, such as “who” or “which”, referring to an earlier word in the sentence.
relatively (adverb)1 quite (she is still relatively young). 2 when compared with others (compared with flying, rail travel is relatively cheap).
relax (verb)1 to take a complete rest, to become less tense or worried (relax after the working day by listening to music). 2 to loosen (relaxed his grip on the rope). 3 to become or make less strict or severe (relaxed the rules toward the end of the semester).
relaxation (noun)1 rest, amusement after work (go to the movies for relaxation). 2 loosening (relaxation of his grip). 3 making less severe (relaxation of the rules).
relaxing (adjective)1 restful. 2 causing a feeling of tiredness.
relay (noun)1 a supply of fresh men or horses to take over from tired ones (a relay of firefighters). 2 a relay race. 3 the sending out of a radio or television signal or show that has been received from somewhere else. vb to rebroadcast a radio message or show received from elsewhere.
relay race (noun)a team race in which each member of a team covers part of the whole distance.
release (verb)1 to set free (release the prisoner). 2 to let go (released his hold of the rope). 3 to unfasten (release the safety catch on the gun). 4 to make public (released the details of the president’s death). Also n.
relegate (verb)to put down to a lower position (the story was relegated to page 16).
relent (verb)to become less severe, to give way (their mother relented and let the children go to the party).
relentless (adjective)without pity, unmerciful, continuous (relentless criticism). adv relentlessly
relevant (adjective)having to do with the matter under consideration (discuss matters relevant to the situation). n relevance , relevancy
reliability (noun)trustworthiness.
reliable (adjective)able to be trusted (reliable witness). adv reliably
reliance (noun)trust, confidence (put their reliance in his judgment).
reliant (adjective)relying on, depending on (reliant on the financial help of her parents).
relic (noun)something old-fashioned that still exists (a village custom that is a relic of Colonial times). npl relics (formal) a dead body.
relief (noun)1 complete or partial freeing from pain or worry (treatment that gave her some relief). 2 money, etc, given to the poor or those who have lost everything in a disaster (charitable organizations sent relief to the refugees). 3 a person who takes another’s place on duty (the bus driver waited for his relief). 4 forcing an enemy to end the siege of a town (the relief of Mafeking). 5 a piece of sculpture in which the design stands out just beyond a flat surface. 6 a clear outline.
relieve (verb)1 to set free from or lessen (pain or worry) (a medicine to relieve her back pain). 2 to give help to. 3 to take another’s place on duty (relieve the soldier on duty). 4 to force an enemy to end the siege of a town (the army marched to relieve the city).
religion (noun)1 belief in and worship of a god or gods. 2 belief, faith. 3 love of God.
religious (adjective)1 loving God. 2 holy. adv religiously
relinquish (verb)to give up (relinquish his post as manager).
relish (verb)1 to enjoy the taste of (relish a glass of good wine). 2 to like or enjoy (relish a competitive game of tennis). n 1 a taste, flavor. 2 enjoyment. 3 a sharp-tasting sauce (put relish with your hamburger).
relive (verb)to remember (an experience) in detail as if living through it again.
reluctant (adjective)unwilling (reluctant to speak in public). n reluctance. adv reluctantly
rely (verb)1 to trust in (relying on his judgment). 2 to depend on (relied on her parents for financial help).
remain (verb)1 to stay on in a place (asked to remain in the house). 2 to be left over (a little money remained after the bills had been paid). 3 to continue to be (they remained friends).
remainder (noun)that which is left over or behind (for the remainder of the evening).
remains (noun, plural)1 that which is left (the remains of the meal). 2 (formal) a dead body (bury his remains this afternoon).
remand (verb)to send back to prison while further inquiries are being made (the accused has been remanded). n 1 act of remanding. 2 the state of being remanded.
remark (verb)1 to say (she remarked that it was a pleasant day). 2 to comment (on) (he remarked on her beautiful ring). n 1 something said (he made a remark about her appearance). 2 (formal) notice, attention (clothing that could not escape remark).
remarkable (adjective)worthy of notice, extraordinary (of remarkable intelligence ri-mar-ka-blee/.
remedial (adjective)intended or helping to cure.
remedy (noun)1 a cure (a remedy for headaches). 2 a medicine (herbal remedies). 3 any way of putting right what is wrong (seek a remedy for truancy). vb 1 to cure. 2 to put right (remedy the injustice).
remember (verb)1 to keep in mind (remember her youth with pleasure). 2 to recall to the mind (try to remember his name). 3 to give greetings from another (remember me to your father).
remembrance (noun)1 memory. 2 a souvenir.
remind (verb)to cause to remember (you will have to remind him to come to the meeting).
reminder (noun)something that helps you to remember (sent him a reminder about the unpaid bill).
reminisce (verb)to tell stories of your past (old people reminiscing about their youth).
reminiscence (noun)1 a memory of your past (a childhood reminiscence). 2 the remembering of the past. npl stories about your past (she had so many reminiscences to share).
reminiscent (adjective)1 remembering the past (in a reminiscent mood). 2 reminding of the past (a style reminiscent of Renoir).
remiss (adjective)(formal) careless, not doing your duty properly (it was remiss of them to forget their father’s birthday).
remission (noun)1 the reduction of a prison sentence (given six months’ remission for good behavior). 2 a period when an illness is less severe (the cancer patient is in remission at the moment).
remnant (noun)a small piece or part left over, especially of fabric (make an apron with the remnant).
remorse (noun)great sorrow for having done wrong (he showed remorse for his crimes). adj remorseful adv remorsefully
remorseless (adjective)feeling no remorse, pitiless (a remorseless tyrant). adv remorselessly
remote (adjective)1 distant, far away, out of the way (a remote village). 2 not closely related (a remote cousin ri-mote-lee/.
remote control (noun)1 a system which allows a device or machine to be controlled from a distance, using electrical, electronic, or radio signals (a model boat operated by remote control). 2 also remote a hand-held device that enables the user to operate a television set etc from a distance.
removal (noun)1 act of removing (the removal of the stain from the fabric). 2 a change of dwelling place (the removal will be completed by the weekend).
remove (verb)1 to take from its place (remove a book from the shelf). 2 to take off (removed his socks). 3 to dismiss (remove him from the post of manager). adj removable
Renaissance (noun)a revival, especially of interest in arts and learning, as in the 15th century.
render (verb)1 to give (for services rendered). 2 to perform in a certain way (a piano solo beautifully rendered). 3 to translate (render the Latin passage into English). 4 to cause to be (her reply rendered him speechless).
renderingCollective noun for architects (A rendering of architects) (see list of collective nouns)
rendering (noun)1 a translation. 2 a particular performance.
rendezvous (noun)1 (formal) an agreed meeting place (the summer house was the lovers’ usual rendezvous). 2 a meeting (a midnight rendezvous).
rendition (noun)a particular performance (his rendition of “Danny Boy”).
renew (verb)1 to make new again (renew his club membership). 2 to begin again (renew their assault on the town). adj renewable n renewal
renounce (verb)1 to give up (renounce his claim to the throne). 2 to state that you will have nothing more to do with (renounce his religion). n renunciation
renovate (verb)to make like new, to repair and clean (renovate the old building re-nu-vay-shun/.
renown (noun)fame, glory (he won renown as a writer).
renowned (adjective)famous (a renowned scientist).
rent1 (noun)a payment made for the use of land, a house, etc. vb 1 to get the use of by paying rent (students rent a house from him). 2 to let or hire out for rent (rent his apartment to students).
rent2 (noun)(formal) a tear, a split (a rent in the drapes).
rental (noun)rent, the sum paid in rent (TV rental).
repair (verb)1 to mend (repair the broken fence). 2 to put right, make up for (repair the wrong done to them). 3 to go. n 1 returning to good condition, mending. 2 a mended place (the obvious repair to the dress). 3 condition for using (in poor repair).
repay (verb)1 to pay back (repay the money borrowed). 2 to treat in a like way (repay her kindness with abuse).
repayment (noun)1 the act of repaying. 2 the sum repaid.
repeal (verb)to withdraw, to set aside, to abolish (to repeal the law). Also n.
repeat (verb)1 to do or say again (repeat the order/repeat the task). 2 to speak aloud something learned by heart (repeat a poem). Also n.
repeatedly (adverb)again and again (he hit the target repeatedly).
repel (verb)(repelled , repelling ) 1 to cause dislike (he is so dirty he repels me). 2 to drive back (repel the enemy army).
repellent (adjective)causing dislike or disgust (a repellent sight). n that which is able to repel or drive away something (an insect repellent).
repent (verb)to feel sorry for having said or done something (repent his wickedness). n repentance adj repentant
repertoire (noun)1 a performer’s stock of musical pieces, poems, etc (the comedian’s repertoire of jokes). 2 a company’s stock of plays ready for acting.
repetition (noun)1 act of repeating (his repetition of the instructions). 2 saying from memory (the child’s repetition of the poem). adj repetitious
replace (verb)1 to put back in place (replacing the book on the shelf). 2 to take the place of (she replaced him as school principal).
replacement (noun)1 act of replacing. 2 a person or thing that takes the place of another.
replenish (verb)to fill up again (replenish the guests’ glasses). n replenishment
replica (noun)1 an exact copy of a work of art (a replica of the original piece). 2 a reproduction, especially of a smaller size (a replica of the Statue of Liberty).
replicate (verb)to make an exact copy of.
reply (verb)to answer (replied to their questions/replying to their initiative). n an answer.
report (verb)1 to give as news or information, to tell (report a new medical development). 2 to write an account of, especially for a newspaper (she reported on foreign affairs for a national newspaper). 3 to make a complaint about for having done wrong (report the boys who played truant to the teacher). 4 to tell someone in authority (report the theft to the police). n 1 a spoken or written account of work performed (e.g. by a committee, a student). 2 an account of something that has been said or done, especially when written for a newspaper. 3 a rumor (there were reports that he had married). 4 a loud noise (a report from a gun).
reporter (noun)a person who reports for a newspaper or television/radio broadcast.
repose (verb)1 (formal) to lay at rest, to lie at rest. 2 to place (repose her trust in someone not worthy of it). n 1 rest, sleep (seek repose). 2 calmness (her face in repose).
represent (verb)1 to stand for, or make to stand for, as a sign or likeness (the white dove representing peace). 2 to be a picture or statue of. 3 to have the right to speak or act for (the lawyer representing her). 4 to describe or declare, perhaps falsely (he represented himself as someone whom they could trust). 5 (formal) to be, to constitute (it represented a considerable improvement on previous attendance figures). 6 to be the representative of (a firm).
representation (noun)1 the act of representing or being represented. 2 an image or likeness (a representation of the king in oils). 3 (formal) a protest or objection (make representations about the rise in fees).
representative (adjective)typical, standing for others of the same class (a representative sample). n 1 a person who acts for another (the lawyer acted as her representative). 2 a person who sells goods for a business firm (a representative for a publisher). 3 an elected member of the house of representatives.
repress (verb)to keep under control, to keep down, to restrain (repress a desire to laugh).
repression (noun)strict control, restraint.
repressive (adjective)(formal) intended to keep down or restrain (a repressive form of government).
reprieve (verb)to let off punishment, to pardon (he faced the death sentence but was reprieved). Also n.
reprimand (noun)a severe scolding. vb to scold severely (reprimand the children for their manners).
reprint (verb)to print again (reprinted six times). n reprint a new printing or edition.
reprisal (noun)something done by way of punishment or revenge (their raid was a reprisal for our earlier attacks).
reproach (verb)to accuse and blame, to scold, usually with a suggestion of sadness or disappointment (she reproached him for letting everyone down). n 1 scolding, blame (a look of reproach/words of reproach). 2 something that brings shame (his bad conduct brought reproach on his family).
reproachful (adjective)accusing, shameful.
reproduce (verb)1 to cause to be heard, seen, or done again (unable to reproduce the results reproduce sound). 2 to increase by having offspring (rabbits reproduce rapidly). n reproduction adj reproductive
reptile (noun)a class of cold-blooded animals that crawl or creep (e.g. snake, lizard).
republic (noun)a state entirely governed by elected persons, there being no sovereign.
republican (adjective)having to do with a republic. n a person who prefers republican government.
repugnance (noun)disgust.
repugnant (adjective)(formal) very unpleasant, disgusting (a repugnant smell).
repulse (verb)(formal) 1 to drive back, to defeat (repulse the enemy attacks). 2 to refuse sharply (to repulse his offer). n 1 a defeat. 2 a refusal.
repulsion (noun)dislike, disgust.
repulsive (adjective)hateful, disgusting (a repulsive sight).
reputable (adjective)having a good name, respectable (it is important to choose a reputable real-estate agent).
reputation (noun)1 your good name, your character as seen by other people (damage her reputation to be seen with such a crook). 2 fame (establish a reputation as an artist).
repute (noun)reputation. vb to consider to be.
reputed (adjective)supposed (to be) (she is reputed to be very wealthy).
reputedly (adverb)as is commonly supposed.
request (verb)to ask for (request them to order a book/request a piece of music to be played). n 1 the act of asking for something (go there at his request). 2 a favor asked for (grant his request).
requiem (noun)1 a church service in which prayers are said for a dead person. 2 a musical composition for the dead.
require (verb)1 to need (we have all we require to make the meal). 2 to demand by right, to order (the children are required to attend school).
requirement (noun)1 a need, something needed (a store that is able to supply all our requirements). 2 a necessary condition (a requirement for entry to university).
rerun (noun)a repeat of a television show; a television show that is broadcast again (there have been far too many reruns on TV recently).
rescue (verb)to save from danger or evil (rescue the dog from drowning). n act of rescuing. n rescuer
research (noun)careful study to discover new facts (her son has been engaged in medical research for many years). Also v.
resemble (verb)to be like (she resembled her mother). n resemblance
resent (verb)to be angered by, to take as an insult (resent their interference in her life).
resentful (adjective)showing anger, full of annoyance (resentful of their interference ri-zent-fu-lee/.
resentment (noun)anger, indignation (feel resentment at their treatment).
reservation (noun)1 something kept back. 2 a condition. 3 land set aside for some special purpose (e.g. as a place for Native Americans to live). 4 a booked place or seat.
reserve (verb)1 (formal) to keep back for future use (reserve some food for later). 2 to order or book for future use (reserve seats at the movies). n 1 something kept back for future use (a reserve of money for emergencies). 2 land set aside for some special purpose (a nature reserve). 3 shyness, unwillingness to show your feelings (her reserve made her appear unfriendly). npl reserves troops kept out of battle for use where and when needed.
reserved (adjective)shy, not showing what you are thinking or feeling (a very reserved young woman).
reservoir (noun)1 a place where the water supply of a city is stored. 2 a store (a reservoir of oil/a reservoir of information).
reside (verb)to dwell, to live (in).
residence (noun)dwelling, house.
residency (noun)the house of an official, e.g. a governor.
resident (noun)a person who lives somewhere (a resident of Boston). Also adj.
residential (adjective)1 suitable for living in. 2 (of a district) having many dwelling houses.
residual (adjective)(formal) left after the rest has been taken (his residual income after the bills were paid).
residue (noun)the remainder, what is left over (he left most of his estate to his children and the residue was divided among his nephews).
resign (verb)1 to give up (resigned his post as manager). 2 to give up an office or post (he threatened to resign). 3 to accept as inevitable (he resigned himself to defeat). n resignation
resigned (adjective)accepting as inevitable; patient, submissive (a resigned attitude to trouble).
resilient (adjective)1 able to spring back to a former position after being bent (rubber is a resilient material). 2 having good powers of recovery (she has had much misfortune but has been very resilient). n resilience
resin (noun)a sticky substance that oozes from certain plants, e.g. firs, pines, etc. adj resinous
resist (verb)1 to stand against, to fight against, to oppose (resist the enemy advances). 2 to face or allow yourself not to accept (she cannot resist chocolate cake).
resistance (noun)the act or power of resisting, opposition (to put up no resistance to the invading army).
resistant (adjective)offering resistance.
resolute (adjective)determined, bold, having the mind made up (resolute in their efforts to succeed). adv resolutely
resolution (noun)1 determination (proceed with resolution). 2 a firm intention (a New Year resolution to give up smoking). 3 a proposal for a meeting to vote on (those in favor of the resolution raised their hands). 4 the decision of a meeting on a certain matter (pass a resolution to change the rules). 5 (formal) the act of solving (the resolution of the problem).
resolve (verb)1 to determine (resolve to try again). 2 to break up into parts or elements (resolve a chemical substance). 3 to solve (resolve the problem). n 1 a fixed purpose (his resolve was to make a lot of money). 2 determination (he proceeded with resolve to save the company from going out of business).
resonant (adjective)1 echoing. 2 deep-sounding (a resonant voice). n resonance
resort (verb)to make use of, to turn to (resort to crime to pay his debts). n 1 a place to which you go frequently. 2 a place where many people go on vacation. in the last resort as a last possibility (in the last resort he can borrow from his father).
resound (verb)to echo, to give back the sound of (the cave resounded to the children’s shouts).
resounding (adjective)1 echoing. 2 very great (a resounding success).
resource (noun)1 a means of obtaining help, something turned to in time of need (the local library was a useful learning resource). 2 (often pl) a source of economic wealth, especially of a country (oil is one of the country’s most valuable resources).
resourceful (adjective)full of clever plans (his resourceful use of materials saved money).
respect (verb)1 to think highly of (the critics respect him as a writer). 2 to pay attention to (respect their wishes). n 1 honor (treat older people with respect). 2 care or attention (treat their wishes with respect). npl good wishes (send his respects to the old man).
respectability (noun)1 state of deserving respect. 2 decency.
respectable (adjective)1 deserving respect, decent (not thought respectable by the neighbors) 2 socially acceptable (respectable clothing). 3 large enough, good enough, etc (a respectable score). adv respectably
respectful (adjective)showing respect or honor to (children told to be respectful to their elders ri-spect-ful-ee/.
respecting (preposition)(formal) having to do with (respecting his position in the firm).
respective (adjective)each to his/her own, proper to each (they all went to their respective homes).
respectively (adverb)belonging to each in the order already mentioned (James and John got grades of A and B plus respectively).
respiration (noun)(formal) breathing.
respirator (noun)a mask with a filter worn over the nose and mouth to purify the air breathed in.
respiratory (adjective)(formal) having to do with breathing (a respiratory infection).
respond (verb)1 to answer (failed to respond to the question). 2 to do as a reaction to something that has been done (he smiled but she did not respond).
respondent (noun)(formal) the defendant in a lawsuit, especially in divorce.
response (noun)1 an answer, a reply (in response to the question). 2 a reaction (a magnificent response to the charity’s appeal).
responsible (adjective)1 able to be trusted (responsible members of staff). 2 having to say or explain what you have done (he is responsible for his actions). 3 being the cause of something (responsible for the confusion). n responsibility adv responsibly
responsive (adjective)quick to react (responsive to the suggestions).
rest1 (noun)1 a pause in work. 2 inactivity. 3 sleep (a good night’s rest). 4 a support or prop (he aimed the rifle using the wall as a rest). vb 1 to cease from action. 2 to stop work for a time (rest for a few minutes). 3 to be still or quiet (the young children are resting). 4 to sleep or repose. 5 to be supported (by) (his feet resting on the table).
rest2 (noun)that which is left, the remainder.
restaurant (noun)a place where one may buy and eat meals.
restaurateur (noun)a person who keeps a restaurant.
restful (adjective)peaceful, quiet (have a restful vacation).
restive (adjective)unable to keep still, impatient (children getting restive at their desks).
restless (adjective)1 always on the move (too restless to stay in one job for long). 2 not restful, giving no rest (spent a restless night).
restore (verb)1 to bring back (restore law and order). 2 to put back (they restored him to his former post). 3 to make strong again (restored by his vacation). 4 to bring back to an earlier state or condition (restore old furniture). n restoration
restrain (verb)to hold back, to check (restrain the dog from biting people).
restraint (noun)1 self-control. 2 lack of freedom.
restrict (verb)to set limits to, to keep down (the number or amount of) (restrict the amount of money spent/restrict their freedom).
restriction (noun)a rule or condition that lessens freedom.
restrictive (adjective)(formal) lessening freedom, keeping under control (restrictive clothing).
result (noun)1 that which happens as the effect of something else, the outcome (the result of the election/as a result of the accident). 2 the final score in a sports contest. vb 1 to follow as the effect of a cause (blindness resulting from the accident). 2 to end (in) (the research resulted in a new drug on the market).
resumé (noun)1 a summary (the résumé of what happened at the meeting). 2 also CV (British spelling) a brief list of a person’s qualifications, work experience and accomplishments.
resume (verb)1 (formal) to begin again (he will resume his studies). 2 to take back (resume his seat after speaking).
resumption (noun)the act of resuming.
resurgence (noun)(formal) a rising again (a resurgence of terrorist activity).
resurrect (verb)1 to raise or bring back again (resurrect an old law). 2 to raise to life again after death (Christians believe Christ was resurrected).
resurrection (noun)a rising again from the dead.
resuscitate (verb)to bring back to life or consciousness (try to resuscitate the man who had a heart attack). n resuscitation
retail (verb)1 to sell direct to the public in small amounts (he retails tobacco goods). 2 to sell (these sweaters retail at $50 each). n the sale of goods in small quantities (the retail trade). n retailer
retain (verb)1 to continue to use, have, remember, etc (retain control of the firm/a town that has retained its churches). 2 to hold back (a wall built to retain the water). 3 to engage someone’s services by paying a fee in advance (retain a lawyer).
retainer (noun)1 (old) a follower (the king’s retainers). 2 an advance fee for someone’s services (the lawyer is paid a retainer).
retaliate (verb)to return like for like, to get your own back (she retaliated by punching him). n retaliation
retard (verb)to make slow or late, to make go more slowly, to delay (the bad weather retarded the growth of the crops). n retardation
retch (verb)to try to vomit. Also n.
retention (noun)(formal) act of retaining.
reticent (adjective)unwilling to speak to others, silent (a reticent person re-ti-senss/.
retina (noun)the inner layer of the eye to which are connected the ends of the nerves that enable us to see.
retinueCollective noun for ophthalmologists (A retinue of ophthalmologists) (see list of collective nouns)
retire (verb)1 to leave your work for ever because of old age, illness, etc (he retired at the age of 60). 2 to go to bed (retire shortly after midnight). 3 (formal) to go back or away (the jury retired to consider their verdict).
retired (adjective)1 having given up your business or profession (a retired businessman). 2 out-of-the-way, quiet (a retired country village).
retirement (noun)1 the act of retiring (his early retirement was due to poor health). 2 the time after you have finished your working life (he spent his retirement enjoying his hobbies).
retiring (adjective)shy, not fond of company (he was a retiring young man who did not enjoy parties).
retort (verb)to reply quickly or sharply. n 1 a quick or sharp reply. 2 a thin glass bottle with a long bent-back neck, used for heating chemicals.
retrace (verb)to go back over again (retraced her steps to look for the lost ring).
retract (verb)to say that a previous opinion was wrong, to take back what you have said (retracted his accusation). n retraction
retreat (verb)1 to go back (they had to retreat from the fire). 2 (of an army) to move back away from the enemy. n 1 act of retreating (the retreat of the enemy). 2 a quiet, out-of-the-way place, a place of peace and safety (a popular country retreat). 3 a period of rest, meditation, prayer, etc (spend a week in retreat).
retribution (noun)just punishment for wrong done (take retribution on the terrorists).
retrieve (verb)1 to find again (retrieve the glove she left behind). 2 to find and bring back (dogs retrieving birds killed by hunters). 3 to undo harm or loss undergone (apologized to try to retrieve the situation).
retriever (noun)a dog trained to fetch birds shot by hunters.
retro-prefix backward.
retrospect (noun)looking back to the past (in retrospect, he wasn’t so bad really).
retrospection (noun)a looking back to the past.
retrospective (adjective)looking back to the past (a retrospective mood).
return (verb)1 to come or go back (they returned to the house). 2 to give or send back (return his present unopened). n 1 a coming or going back (their return from vacation). 2 what is given or sent back (the return of the library books). 3 profit (a good return from their investment). 4 a written statement of certain facts, expenses, figures, etc (their annual tax return).
reunion (noun)a meeting again of old friends or comrades (a school reunion).
reunite (verb)to join together again (reunited with her sister whom she had not seen for 20 years).
re-use (verb)to use again (re-use wrapping paper). Also n. adj re-usable.
rev (verb)rev up to increase the speed of a motor.
Rev, Rev.short for Reverend.
reveal (verb)1 to show what was hidden (open the box to reveal a diamond). 2 to make known (reveal what should have been confidential information).
reveille (noun)a morning call on the bugle, etc, to waken soldiers.
revel (noun)merry-making, a noisy feast (student revels). vb 1 (old) to make merry. 2 to take great delight (in) (she revels in the misfortune of others). n reveler
revelation (noun)1 act of making known (the revelation of her secrets). 2 a surprising discovery or piece of information (the revelation caused great dismay).
revelry (noun)noisy feasting or merry-making.
revenge (noun)making someone suffer for a wrong done to another, repaying evil with evil (he wanted revenge for his brother’s death). Also vb. adj revengeful
revenue (noun)money made by a person, business, or state (increase in annual revenue).
reverberate (verb)to echo (the caves reverberated with the child’s laughter). n reverberation
revere (verb)(formal) to feel great respect for (young writers revering the great author).
reverence (noun)respect and admiration (treat the great artist with reverence).
Reverend (noun)a title given to a member of clergy. abbreviation Rev.
reverent (adjective)showing or feeling great respect (a reverent attitude toward writers).
reverential (adjective)full of reverence (his reverential attitude toward other artists).
reverse (verb)1 to turn back to front or upside down (reverse the tablecloth). 2 to go or move backward (he reversed the car into the garage). 3 to change to the opposite (reverse her opinion). n 1 a defeat (armies retreating after a major reverse). 2 a failure (firms facing a reverse during the recession). 3 the opposite (she thinks the reverse of what he does). 4 the back of a coin, medal, etc. adj 1 opposite. 2 back.
reversible (adjective)1 able to be reversed (a reversible opinion). 2 that can be turned outside in (a reversible coat).
revert (verb)1 to go back to a former condition, custom, or subject (revert to the old bad habits). 2 to return or be returned to the previous owner or member of his/her family (when she dies the land reverts to her brother’s family).
review (verb)1 to look over again, to consider with a view to changing (review the situation). 2 to inspect (the general reviewing the troops). 3 to write your opinion of (books, plays, etc). n 1 a looking back on the past (a review of the year’s news). 2 reconsideration or revision (a review of company policy). 3 an article in a newspaper, magazine, etc, giving an opinion on a book, play, etc (a review of the latest movie). 4 a magazine that reviews books, plays, etc (a literary review).
reviewer (noun)a person who writes reviews, a critic (the play was praised by the reviewer).
revile (verb)to speak insultingly about or to (revile the government).
revise (verb)to go over again and correct or improve (revise the manuscript). n reviser
revision (noun)the act of revising.
revitalize (verb),also revitalise (British spelling) to put new life or strength into (this movie revitalized her career).
revival (noun)1 the act of reviving. 2 the arousing of fresh enthusiasm for religion.
revivalist (noun)a person who tries to arouse fresh enthusiasm for religion.
revive (verb)1 to bring back to life, health, or consciousness (able to revive the man who nearly drowned). 2 to bring back to use or an active state (revive an old custom). 3 to give new vigor or energy to (revive their interest in sport). 4 to produce an old play in the theater (revive an early musical).
revoke (verb)to do away with, to withdraw (revoke an existing rule). n revocation
revolt (verb)1 to rebel (the townspeople revolting against the government). 2 to shock or disgust (the sight of blood revolts him). n a rebellion, a rising against the government.
revolting (adjective)disgusting, shocking (a revolting sight).
revolution (noun)1 one complete turn of a wheel, etc. 2 a complete change (the technological revolution). 3 a movement or rebellion as a result of which a new method of government is introduced (the French Revolution).
revolutionary (adjective)desiring to bring about a complete change (revolutionary developments in technology). n a person who works for a complete change of government.
revolutionize (verb),also revolutionise (British spelling) to bring about a complete change in (recent developments are likely to revolutionize the whole industry).
revolve (verb)1 to turn around and around. 2 to move around a center or axis.
revolver (noun)a pistol able to fire several shots without reloading.
revue (noun)a light theatrical entertainment with music, songs, dances, etc.
revulsion (noun)a sudden complete change of feeling; disgust (feel revulsion at the sight of blood).
reward (noun)1 something given in return for work done, good behavior, bravery, etc (he was given a reward for helping to save the child from drowning ri-war-ding/.
Rhabdophobiafear of being severely punished or of being severely criticized (see list of phobias)
rhapsodize (verb),also rhapsodise (British spelling) (formal) to talk in an excited, disconnected manner (rhapsodizing over their vacation in Mexico).
rhapsody (noun)1 a piece of writing, music or speech full of excited feeling and therefore not following the usual rules of composition (Gershwin’s “Rhapsody in Blue”) 2 (usually pl) an expression of excited approval (go into rhapsodies over the new baby).
Rheologystudy of the deformation or flow of matter (see list of branches of science)
rhetoric (noun)1 the art of speaking and writing well. 2 words that sound well but say little of importance (they thought the politician’s speech was just rhetoric). n rhetorician
rhetorical (adjective)high-sounding.
rhetorical question (noun)a question asked for effect where no answer is expected.
rheumatism , rheumatics (noun)a disease causing painful swelling in the joints (have difficulty in moving around because of his rheumatism). adj rheumatic
Rheumatologystudy of rheumatism (see list of branches of science)
rhinoceros (noun)a large thick-skinned animal with a horn (or two horns) on its nose.
Rhinologystudy of the nose (see list of branches of science)
Rhochrematicsstudy of inventory management and the movement of products (see list of branches of science)
rhododendron (noun)an evergreen shrub with large brightly colored flowers (pink rhododendrons growing along the driveway).
rhombus (noun)(pl rhombuses or rhombi ) a parallelogram with equal sides but angles that are not right angles.
rhubarb (noun)a garden plant with juicy stalks edible when cooked and roots sometimes used in medicines (rhubarb jam).
rhumbaCollective noun for rattlesnakes (A rhumba of rattlesnakes) (see list of collective nouns)
rhyme, rime (noun)1 sameness of sound at the ends of words or lines of poetry. 2 a word that rhymes with another. 3 a poem with rhymes. vb 1 to find words ending in the same sound(s). 2 to end in the same sound(s) as. 3 to write poetry. rhyme or reason sense, meaning, logic (she quit her job for no rhyme or reason).
Rhypophobiafear of defecation (see list of phobias)
rhythm n 1the regular beat of words or sounds (especially in poetry, music, or dancing) (tapped her feet to the rhythm of the music). 2 a regular repeated pattern of movements, graceful motion (the rhythm of the dancers).
rhythmic , rhythmical (adjective)having a regular beat, regular. adv rhythmically
Rhytiphobiafear of getting wrinkles (see list of phobias)
rib (noun)1 one of the curved bones of the breast (cracked a rib in the accident/a rib of beef). 2 a low narrow ridge or raised part of a material. 3 a curved piece of wood attached to the keel of a ship and going up to the deck.
ribald (adjective)coarse, indecent, vulgar (ribald jokes/ribald laughter).
ribaldry (noun)coarse talk.
ribbon (noun)a narrow decorative band of silk or other material (tie a ribbon in her hair).
rice (noun)a white edible grain often grown in hot countries, especially in river valleys (served with fried rice).
rice paper (noun)1 a kind of fine paper. 2 a special form of this that can be eaten and is used in cookery.
rich (adjective)1 having much money, wealthy (a rich man). 2 fertile (rich soil). 3 valuable (a rich silk). 4 plentiful (a rich source of gold). 5 containing much fat or sugar (rich sauces). 6 deep, strong (a rich voice rich-ness/.
richesCollective noun for matrons (A riches of matrons) (see list of collective nouns)
riches (noun, plural)wealth.
richessCollective noun for martins (A richess of martins) (see list of collective nouns)
richly (adverb)1 in a rich manner (richly dressed). 2 with riches (richly rewarded).
richnessCollective noun for martens (A richness of martens) (see list of collective nouns)
richnessCollective noun for minks (A richness of minks) (see list of collective nouns)
rick (noun)a heap or stack of hay, etc.
rickety (adjective)shaky, unsteady (a rickety table).
rickshaw (noun)a light two-wheeled carriage pulled by a person.
ricochet (noun)the skimming of a bullet off a flat surface. vb to hit something and bounce away at an angle (the bullet ricocheted off the wall).
rid (verb)(rid or ridded , ridding ) to make free from, to clear (try to rid themselves of their boring guests).
riddle1 (noun)a puzzling question.
riddle2 (noun)a large sieve (use a riddle to separate stones from the soil). vb 1 to sift. 2 to fill with holes.
ride (verb)(pt rode , pp ridden ) 1 to be carried on the back of an animal or on a vehicle (ride a donkey). 2 to be able to ride on and control a horse, bicycle, etc (the little girl is slowly learning to ride her bicyle but she still wobbles a lot). n a trip on an animal’s back or in a vehicle.
rider (noun)1 a person who rides (a horse-rider). 2 something added to what has already been said or written (the teacher added the rider that he expected everyone to be on time).
ridge (noun)1 a long narrow hill. 2 the raised part between two lower parts (the ridge of the roof of the house). 3 a mountain range (they walked along the ridge before climbing to the top of the mountain).
ridicule (noun)mockery. vb to mock, to make fun of (she was ridiculed by her classmates).
ridiculous (adjective)deserving to be laughed at, absurd (the large hat made her look ridiculous). adv ridiculously
riding habit (noun)the clothes worn for riding.
rife (adjective)found everywhere; in large numbers or quantities; extremely common (disease and poverty were rife).
riffraffCollective noun for knaves (A riffraff of knaves) (see list of collective nouns)
rifle1 (noun)a handgun with a grooved barrel that makes the bullet spin in flight.
rifle2 (verb)to search through and steal anything valuable (the burglar rifled through her papers).
rift (noun)1 a disagreement between two friends (a rift between neighbors). 2 a split or crack in the ground.
rig (verb)(rigged , rigging ) 1 to provide clothing (rig the child out for the party). 2 to provide tools or equipment. 3 to provide (a ship) with ropes, sails, etc. 4 to set up (rig up a shelter). 5 to arrange wrongfully to produce a desired result, often an unfair or unlawful one (rig the election). n the particular way in which a ship’s masts, sails, etc, are arranged.
rigging (noun)a ship’s spars, ropes, etc.
right (adjective)1 correct (the right answer). 2 true (is it right to say he left early?). 3 just, morally correct (it is not right to let him go unpunished). 4 straight (go right ahead). 5 on the side of the right hand (stand at her right side). 6 in good condition (call a plumber to put the washing machine right). 7 suitable, appropriate (the right man for the job). vb 1 to put back in position, to set in order. 2 to mend, to correct. n 1 that which is correct, good, or true (they are in the right). 2 something to which you have a just claim (freedom of speech is a right). 3 the right-hand side (stand on her right). 4 in politics, the party or group holding the more traditional, conservative beliefs (a politician of the right). adv 1 straight. 2 exactly. 3 to the right-hand side.
right angle (noun)an angle of 90 degrees.
righteous (adjective)1 having just cause (righteous indignation). 2 good-living, virtuous (a righteous life rie-chus-lee rie-chus-ness/.
rightful (adjective)lawful, just (the rightful owner). adv rightfully
right-handed (adjective)better able to use the right hand than the left.
rightly (adverb)1 justly (rightly or wrongly he was blamed). 2 correctly (we rightly assumed he would refuse).
rigid (adjective)1 that cannot be bent (a rigid frame). 2 stern, strict, not willing to change (rigid in his views). 3 not to be changed (rigid rules). n rigidity adv rigidly
rigmarole (noun)long and confused or meaningless talk (give clear instructions, not a rigmarole).
rigor (noun),also rigour (British spelling) (formal) strictness, severity, harshness (the rigors of life in the orphanage). adj rigorous adv rigorously
rile (verb)to make angry (his rudeness riled me).
rim (noun)1 the outer hoop of a wheel. 2 the outer edge, brim (the rim of the glass).
rime1 (noun)white or hoar frost.
rime2another spelling of rhyme.
rind (noun)1 the skin of some fruits (lemon rind). 2 the skin of bacon, cheese, etc.
ringCollective noun for boxers (A ring of boxers) (see list of collective nouns)
ringCollective noun for jewellers (A ring of jewellers) (see list of collective nouns)
ringCollective noun for keys (A ring of keys) (see list of collective nouns)
ring1 (noun)1 a hoop of gold or other metal for the finger (a wedding ring). 2 anything in the form of a circle (the children gathered in a ring). 3 a space enclosed by ropes for a boxing match. vb (pt, pp ringed ) to surround, to encircle.
ring2 (verb)(pt rang , pp rung ) 1 to make a clear sound as a bell. 2 to cause a bell to sound (ring the doorbell). 3 to echo (his voice ringing in her ears). n the sound of a bell.
ringleader (noun)the leader of a gang (police failed to catch the ringleader).
ringlet (noun)a long curl of hair (a little girl with ringlets falling to her shoulders).
rink (noun)1 a level stretch of ice for skating or curling. 2 a floor for roller-skating.
rinse (verb)1 to wash by pouring water over (rinse the cup under the faucet). 2 to dip in water and wash lightly. 3 to put in clean water to remove soap.
riot (noun)1 a noisy or violent disorder caused by a crowd (there was a riot when the police arrested the protester). 2 (informal) something or someone that is very funny (the comedian is a riot). 3 a bright and splendid show (a riot of color). read the riot act to give clear warning that unruly behavior must stop. run riot to go wild, to go out of control (with the teacher gone the children would run riot).
riotous (adjective)noisy, disorderly (a riotous party).
rip (verb)(ripped , ripping ) to tear or cut open, to strip off (she ripped her skirt on the fence). n a tear, a rent.
ripe (adjective)1 ready to be gathered or picked, ready for eating (ripe apples). 2 suitable or ready for (a company ripe for take-over). n ripeness
ripen (verb)1 to become ripe (the apples would slowly ripen). 2 to cause to become ripe (ripen fruit in a greenhouse).
ripple (noun)1 a little wave (a ripple on the water). 2 the sound of shallow water running over stones. 3 a sound resembling this (a ripple of laughter). vb 1 to flow in ripples. 2 to cause tiny waves to appear on. 3 to flow with a murmuring sound.
rise (verb)(pt rose, pp risen ) 1 to get up from bed (rise early). 2 to stand up (she rose to go). 3 to go upward (smoke rising from the chimney). 4 to increase (prices rising). 5 to rebel (the people rose up against the king). 6 to move to a higher position (he has risen to become manager). 7 (of a river) to have its source or beginning. give rise to to cause or bring about (their relationship would give rise to scandal). rise to the occasion to do all that is necessary at a difficult time (he was nervous about speaking in public but he rose to the occasion). take a rise out of (informal) to play a joke or trick on.
rising (noun)1 the act of rising. 2 a rebellion (a rising against the tyrant).
riskCollective noun for lobsters (A risk of lobsters) (see list of collective nouns)
risk (noun)1 danger. 2 possible harm or loss. vb 1 to put in danger, to lay open to the possibility of loss (risk his health risk losing his business).
risky (adjective)dangerous (a risky journey).
risotto (noun)an Italian rice dish cooked with meat, vegetables, etc. (mushroom risotto).
rite (noun)an order or arrangement of proceedings fixed by rule or custom (marriage rites).
ritual (adjective)having to do with or done as a rite (a ritual sacrifice). n 1 a set of rites. 2 ceremonies performed to worship God. adv ritually
rival (noun)1 a person who is trying to do better than another (rivals for the same girl). 2 a competitor for the same prize (rivals in the tennis competition). vb to be as good or nearly as good as (her beauty rivals her sister’s). n rivalry
river (noun)a large running stream of water.
rivet (noun)a bolt driven through metal plates, etc, to fasten them together and then hammered flat at both ends. vb to fix (the eyes or mind) firmly upon (they were riveted by the magician’s tricks).
rivulet (noun)a small stream.
road (noun)1 a prepared public way for traveling on (the road was icy). 2 a street (he lives in the next road). 3 a way (the road to Key West).
roadhog (noun)(informal) a dangerously reckless motorist.
roadhouse (noun)a tavern or restaurant on or near a highway.
roadrunner (noun)a small, brown bird with a long tail, found in the southwestern United States (roadrunners run instead of flying).
roam (verb)to wander about (wild animals roam the plain).
roar (verb)to give a roar (roar in pain/roar with laughter). n 1 a loud shout or cry (he gave a roar of pain). 2 the full loud cry of a large animal (the lion’s roar).
roast (verb)to cook before a fire or in an oven (roast the meat slowly). n roasted meat (have a roast for Sunday lunch).
rob (verb)(robbed , robbing ) 1 to steal from (rob the rich rob-er/.
robbery (noun)the act of robbing.
robe (noun)a long, loose-fitting garment. npl robes clothes worn as a sign of rank or position. vb to put on robes, to put robes on someone else.
robin (noun)a red-breasted songbird, about the size of a pigeon (the American robin is a much larger bird than the little European robin).
robot (noun)1 a machine made to carry out certain tasks usually done by people. 2 a person who does his or her work mechanically without thinking or asking questions. adj robotic
Roboticsstudy of robots (see list of branches of science)
robust (adjective)1 healthy and strong (robust children). 2 vigorous, rough (a robust sense of humor). adv robustly n robustness
rock and roll, rock ’n’ roll (noun)a type of popular dance music that originated in the 1950s.
rock climbing (noun)a sport that involves the climbing of steep cliffs and rockfaces, usually with ropes.
rock salt (noun)common salt found in solid lumps in the earth.
rock1 (verb)1 to move from side to side, or backward and forward in turn (rock the cradle/rock the baby). 2 to sway from side to side (boats rocking on the waves). n a type of loud popular music with a strong beat.
rock2 (noun)1 the hard, solid part of the earth’s crust. 2 a large mass or piece of stone (a rock fell from the cliff).
rocker (noun)a curved piece of wood fastened to the foot of a chair, cradle, etc, to enable it to rock (fix rockers to the chair).
rockery (noun)part of a garden consisting of a heap of earth and large stones or small rocks with plants growing between them (flowers growing in the rockery).
rocket (noun)1 a cylinder that is propelled through the air by a backward jet of gas. 2 a spacecraft launched in this way (send a rocket into orbit). 3 a firework that flies up into the air as it is burning out, often used as a signal (rockets went off on the 4th of July).
rocking chair (noun)a chair on rockers.
rocking horse (noun)a toy horse on rockers.
rocky (adjective)1 shaky (a rocky table). 2 full of rocks (a rocky shore). 3 hard as rock.
rod (noun)a straight slender stick or bar (a fishing rod).
rodent (noun)any animal that gnaws, e.g. a mouse or rat.
rodeo (noun)1 a gathering together of cattle for marking. 2 a display of riding skill by cowboys.
roe1 (noun)1 a female deer (stags and roes). 2 a small type of deer.
roe2 (noun)all the eggs in a female fish (cod roe).
roebuck (noun)a male roe deer.
rogue (noun)1 a dishonest person (the rogue stole money from the old lady). 2 a naughty, mischievous child.
roguish (adjective)1 dishonest. 2 mischievous, teasing (a roguish smile).
role (noun)1 the part played by an actor (he played the role of Hamlet). 2 your actions or duties (his role in the company).
role model (noun)a person whom some other people admire and try to copy (the footballer was a role model for many teenage boys).
rollCollective noun for armadillos (A roll of armadillos) (see list of collective nouns)
rollCollective noun for coins (A roll of coins) (see list of collective nouns)
rollCollective noun for drummers (A roll of drummers) (see list of collective nouns)
rollCollective noun for gamblers (A roll of gamblers) (see list of collective nouns)
roll (verb)1 to move by going around and around, like a wheel or ball (roll the stone down the hill). 2 to rock or sway from side to side (ships rolling at anchor). 3 to flatten with a roller (roll the pastry). 4 to make a loud long noise (the drums rolled). n 1 paper, cloth, etc, rolled into the form of a cylinder. 2 a list of names (the school roll). 3 a turning or rocking movement (rolled his eyes). 4 a long-drawn-out noise (a roll of thunder).
roll call (noun)the calling over of a list of names (the school roll call).
roller (noun)1 anything made in the form of a cylinder so that it can turn around and around easily (for flattening something) (garden rollers). 2 a long swelling wave.
roller coaster (noun)a fairground ride like an elevated railroad with steep sharp curves.
roller skate (noun)a skate mounted on small wheels. vb roller-skate
Rollerblade™ (noun)a type of roller skate which has the wheels set in one straight line. n rollerblading
rollicking (adjective)noisy and merry (a rollicking party).
rolling pin (noun)a roller for making dough or pastry flat and thin before it is cooked.
Roman (adjective)having to do with Rome.
Roman Catholic (noun)a member of that part of the Christian Church that is governed by the Pope, the Bishop of Rome.
Roman numerals (noun, plural)numbers represented by letters (e.g. IV, V, VI for 4, 5, 6, etc).
roman type (noun)ordinary upright type (not italics).
romance (noun)1 a love affair (she had several romances before she married). 2 a love story (a writer of romances). 3 a story of wonderful or fanciful events (a romance about a prince and a princess). adj (of a language) derived from Latin.
romantic (adjective)1 showing feelings of love (a romantic gesture). 2 dealing with love (a romantic novel). 3 imaginative, fanciful (she has romantic notions of becoming a movie star). adv romantically
romp (verb)1 to play roughly or noisily (children romping around the garden). 2 to do swiftly and easily (romp through the examinations). n rough or noisy play.
romper (noun)a one-piece garment for a small child.
roof (noun)1 the outside upper covering of a house, building, vehicle, etc (mend the roof of the castle). 2 the upper part of the mouth. vb to cover with a roof (roofed the new house).
rook (noun)1 a piece in chess. 2 (British spelling) a black bird of the crow family. vb to cheat someone.
rookeryCollective noun for albatrosses (A rookery of albatrosses) (see list of collective nouns)
room (noun)1 an apartment in a house (three rooms upstairs). 2 space (room for three in the back). 3 space for free movement (no room to dance). 4 scope (room for improvement). npl lodgings.
roomy (adjective)having plenty of space (a roomy car).
roostCollective noun for fowl (A roost of fowl) (see list of collective nouns)
roost (noun)the pole on which birds rest at night. vb to rest or sleep on a roost.
rooster (noun)a cock.
root (noun)1 the part of a plant that is fixed in the earth and draws nourishment from the soil. 2 the beginning or origin, a first cause from which other things develop (the root of the problem). 3 a word from which other words are formed (from the Latin root). 4 a factor of a number that when multiplied by itself gives the original number. vb 1 to fix firmly (he felt rooted to the spot). 2 to search about for (rooting around for misplaced keys).
ropeCollective noun for onions (A rope of onions) (see list of collective nouns)
rope (noun)a strong thick cord, made by twisting together strands of hemp, wire, etc. vb 1 to fasten with a rope (rope the donkeys together). 2 to mark off with a rope (rope off an area of the hall for the choir).
rosary (noun)in the Roman Catholic Church, a series of prayers, or a string of beads each of which represents a prayer in the series.
rose (noun)1 a beautiful, sweet-smelling flower growing on a thorny shrub (a bunch of roses). 2 a shrub bearing roses (plant roses). 3 a light red or pink color (a dress of pale rose). 4 a nozzle full of holes at the end of the spout of a watering can.
rosemary (noun)an evergreen sweet-smelling shrub used as a herb in cooking (lamb flavored with rosemary).
rosette (noun)1 a badge, like a rose in shape, made of ribbon (the politicians all wore their rosettes). 2 a rose-shaped ornament carved in stone, etc.
rosewood (noun)a hard dark-colored wood smelling of roses when fresh cut (a table made of rosewood).
Rosh Hashana (or Hashanah ) (noun)the Jewish New Year festival, held in September or October.
rosy (adjective)1 red. 2 giving cause for hope.
rot (verb)(rotted , rotting ) 1 to go bad from age or lack of use, to decay (fruit rotting on the trees). 2 to cause to decay (damp had rotted the woodwork). n decay (rot in the wood paneling).
rotary (adjective)turning around on an axle. n a meeting place of roads with a central circle around which vehicles must go until they turn off (give way at the rotary).
rotate (verb)1 to turn around a center or axis (wheels rotating). 2 to move like a wheel (trainees are rotating from department to department)
rotation (noun)1 movement around a center or axis. 2 a regular order repeated again and again (rotation of crops).
rotten (adjective)1 decaying, having gone bad (rotten fruit). 2 (informal) mean (a rotten thing to do).
Rottweiler (noun)a breed of very large, strong dog with a black and brown coat.
rotund (adjective)round, fattish (a rotund little man). n rotundity
roublesee ruble.
rouge (noun)red coloring for the cheeks (she wears too much rouge).
rough (adjective)1 not smooth, uneven (a rough road surface). 2 wild, stormy (rough weather). 3 not polite (rough manners). 4 not gentle (a rough voice). 5 coarse, violent (a rough hooligan). 6 badly finished (a rough building job). 7 not exact (a rough estimate). n a violent badly behaved person. adv roughly n roughness
roughage (noun)food that conatins a lot of fiber, which aids digestion.
roughen (verb)to make or become rough (hands roughened by scrubbing floors).
rouleauCollective noun for haematologists (A rouleau of haematologists) (see list of collective nouns)
roulette (noun)a gambling game played on a revolving board with a ball that falls into one of a number of holes when the board ceases spinning (play roulette at the casino).
roundCollective noun for drinks (A round of drinks) (see list of collective nouns)
roundCollective noun for mailmen (A round of mailmen) (see list of collective nouns)
round (adjective)like a ball or circle in shape. n 1 a round object. 2 a duty visit to all the places under your care (the doctor’s rounds). 3 a part song in which singers join at different times and begin again when they have finished. 4 a shell or bullet for firing. 5 a division of a boxing match (a knockout in the second round). 6 a complete part of a knock-out competition (e.g. in soccer). 7 a game of golf. 8 a spell or outburst (a round of applause). adv 1 in the opposite direction (he turned round). 2 in a circle (stand all round). 3 from one person to another (pass the wine round). 4 from place to place (drive round). (preposition) 1 on every side of (sit round the table). 2 with a circular movement about (sail round the world). vb 1 to give a round shape to (he rounded the corners with sandpaper). 2 to go around (ships rounding the bay).
round trip (noun)a journey to a place and back again.
roundabout (noun)(British) a rotary. adj 1 indirect. 2 using too many words.
roundly (adverb)plainly (told her roundly what he thought).
roundup (noun)1 the gathering of cattle or other farm animals for market. 2 a gathering of something (a roundup of this week’s news).
rouse (verb)1 to awaken (rouse from sleep). 2 to stir up to action (his words roused the crowd to rebellion).
rousing (adjective)stirring, exciting.
routCollective noun for schoolboys (A rout of schoolboys) (see list of collective nouns)
routCollective noun for snails (A rout of snails) (see list of collective nouns)
rout (verb)to defeat and put to disordered flight (rout the enemy army). n 1 a disorderly and hasty retreat after a defeat. 2 a complete defeat (a rout of the enemy).
route (noun)a way from one place to another (take the scenic coastal route).
routine (noun)a regular way or order of doing things (tired of her working routine). adv routinely
rove (verb)1 to wander about. 2 to wander.
rover (noun)1 a wanderer (too much of a rover to settle down). 2 (old) a pirate.
rowCollective noun for oarsmen (A row of oarsmen) (see list of collective nouns)
row house (noun)one of a series of houses, usually similar in design, situated side by side and joined by common walls.
row1 (noun)a line of people or things (a row of trees).
row2 (verb)to move a boat by means of oars. n 1 a spell of rowing. 2 a trip in a boat moved by oars.
row3 (noun)1 noise, disturbance (the row from the party next door). 2 a quarrel (a family row). 3 a public argument (a row over prison escapes). vb (informal) to quarrel (husband and wife rowing).
rowdy (adjective)noisy and quarrelsome (a rowdy crowd). n rowdiness n rowdyism
royal (adjective)1 having to do with a king or queen (the royal family). 2 splendid, kingly (a royal feast). adv royally
royalist (noun)a supporter of a king or queen.
royaltyCollective noun for princesses (A royalty of princesses) (see list of collective nouns)
royalty (noun)1 a royal person or persons (royalty was present at the dinner). 2 a share of the profits paid to authors, inventors, etc, for the use of their work (receive royalties for her work).
rub (verb)(rubbed , rubbing ) to move one thing to and fro against another (he rubbed his eyes). rub out to remove or erase, especially with an eraser. n act of rubbing (a rub with a damp cloth).
rubber (noun)1 a tough elastic substance made from the juice of certain tropical trees (tires made of rubber). 2 a piece of rubber used to remove marks by rubbing; an eraser. adj rubbery
rubbish (noun)1 things of no value that you would throw away. 2 nonsense (she talked a lot of rubbish).
rubble (noun)broken pieces of bricks or stones (search the rubble for earthquake survivors).
ruble (noun)the main Russian unit of currency.
ruby (noun)a red precious stone (a ring with a valuable ruby). adj 1 containing rubies. 2 red.
ruck (noun)the mass of ordinary people (dreams of getting out of the ruck and becoming famous).
rudder (noun)a flat hinged plate at the stern of a ship or the tail of an aircraft, used for steering.
rude (adjective)1 impolite (the child was rude to the teacher). 2 sudden and unpleasant (a rude shock) 3 (old) roughly made (a rude hut). 4 (old) uncivilized, untaught, vulgar. adv rudely n rudeness
ruff (noun)a stiff frilled collar worn in olden times (ruffs were worn in Tudor times).
ruffian (noun)a rough brutal fellow, a violent law-breaker (mugged by a gang of ruffians).
ruffle (verb)1 to disturb the smoothness of, to disarrange (the wind ruffling her hair). 2 to anger or annoy (he was ruffled by her comments). n a frill (a party dress with ruffles).
rug (noun)1 a mat for the floor (a rug on the floor). 2 a thick woolen coverlet or blanket (put a rug over the lady’s legs).
rugby (noun)a form of football in which the ball, oval in shape, may be carried in the hands.
rugged (adjective)1 rough, uneven (rugged coastline). 2 strongly built (rugged young men).
ruin (noun)1 destruction (ancient buildings fallen into ruin). 2 downfall, overthrow, state of having lost everything of value (the company faced ruin during the recession). 3 (often pl) remains of old buildings (visit the castle ruins). vb 1 to destroy (the floods ruined her carpets). 2 to cause to lose everything of value (he was ruined when he lost the lawsuit).
rule (noun)1 government (under foreign rule). 2 a regulation or order (school rules). 3 an official or accepted standard (as a rule he is home by midnight). 4 the usual way that something happens (spelling rules). vb 1 to govern, to manage (a king ruling the country). 2 to give an official decision (the judge ruled that he go to prison). 3 to draw a straight line with the help of a ruler.
ruler (noun)1 a person who governs or reigns (rebel against their ruler). 2 a flat rod for measuring length (draw a straight line with a ruler/measure with a ruler).
ruling (adjective)greatest, controlling (the ruling party). n a decision (the ruling of the judge).
rum (noun)spirit made from sugar cane.
rumba (noun)a dance of Cuban origin.
rumble (verb)to make a low rolling noise (I can hear the thunder rumbling in the distance). Also n.
ruminant (adjective)chewing the cud (ruminant animals such as cows). n an animal that chews the cud.
ruminate (verb)1 to chew the cud (cows ruminating). 2 (formal) to think deeply (ruminating about his chances of success).
rummage (verb)to search thoroughly but untidily (rummage through her purse for a comb). Also n.
rummy (noun)a card game.
rumor (noun),also rumour (British spelling) 1 a widely known story that may not be true (he is not in prison—that was just a rumor). 2 common talk, gossip (a story based on rumor).
rump (noun)1 the end of an animal’s backbone. 2 the buttocks (smack the horse’s rump).
rumple (verb)to crease, to spoil the smoothness of (clotheing rumpled after the long journey).
rumpus (noun)a noisy disturbance or quarrel, an uproar (there was a rumpus when the concert was canceled).
runCollective noun for poultry (A run of poultry) (see list of collective nouns)
run (verb)(ran , running , pp run ) 1 to move quickly (run to catch the bus). 2 to move from one place to another (a train running from Philadelphia to New York). 3 to take part in a race (he runs in local race meetings). 4 to flow (blood running from the wound). 5 to organize or manage (she runs the local branch of the company). 6 to smuggle (run drugs across the border). 7 to last or continue (a play running for a year). 8 to compete in a competition or an election (run for governor). n 1 act of running (go for a run). 2 the length of time for which something runs (a run of six months). 3 a widespread demand for (a sudden run on bathing costumes). 4 an enclosed place for animals or fowls (a chicken run). run down 1 to say bad things about (she is supposed to be her friend but she is always running her down). 2 to stop working because of lack of power (e.g. because a spring is unwound) (a clock running down). run over 1 to read or repeat quickly (run over the words of the poem). 2 to knock over in a vehicle (she ran over the dog).
runaway (noun)1 a deserter, a person who runs away (police looking for a runaway). 2 an animal or vehicle that is out of control.
rung (noun)a step of a ladder (climb the ladder rung by rung).
runner (noun)1 a person who runs (the runners in the race). 2 a messenger (a runner for the advertizing agency). 3 a long spreading stem of a plant. 4 a long narrow cloth for a table or carpet for a stair. 5 any device on which something slips or slides along (the runners on the sledge).
runner-up (noun)(pl runners-up ) the person or team second to the winner (he was disappointed when his child was runner-up in the finals).
running (adjective)1 going on all the time (a running commentary). 2 in succession (two years running). n 1 the act of moving quickly. 2 that which runs or flows. in the running with a chance of success (he thought he was in the running for the manager’s job).
running mate (noun)a candidate for the lesser of two political posts, such as vice-president.
runny (adjective)liquid, flowing (runny soup).
Runologystudy of runes (see list of branches of science)
runway (noun)a flat road along which an aircraft runs before taking off or after landing.
rupee (noun)the main unit of currency in India and Pakistan.
Rupophobiafear of dirt (see list of phobias)
rupture (noun)1 a clean break. 2 a quarrel or disagreement. 3 the thrusting of part of the intestine through the muscles of the abdomen. vb 1 to break. 2 to thrust. 3 to quarrel.
rural (adjective)having to do with the country or its way of life (the rural way of life).
ruse (noun)a trick (it was just a ruse to get himself into the party).
rushCollective noun for pochard (A rush of pochard) (see list of collective nouns)
rush1 (verb)1 to move quickly and with force (he rushed to help her). 2 to do hastily (rush the job). 3 to make someone hurry (rush him to make a decision). 4 to capture by a sudden quick attack (rush the enemy fortress). n 1 hurry (always in a rush). 2 a fast and forceful move (a rush toward the exit). 3 a sudden demand (a rush on toys at Christmas). 4 a sudden advance (a rush by the enemy army).
rush2 (noun)a tall grass-like plant growing in damp or marshy ground.
Russophobiafear of Russia or Russians (see list of phobias)
rust (noun)the red coating formed on iron and steel left in a damp place. vb to decay by gathering rust (water pipes rusting through).
rustic (adjective)(formal) having to do with the country or country people (a rustic way of life).
rustle1 (verb)to make a low whispering sound (leaves rustling in the wind). Also n.
rustle2 (verb)to steal (cattle). n rustler
rusty (adjective)1 covered with rust. 2 out of practice (her piano playing is a bit rusty).
rut (noun)a deep track made by a wheel (there were deep ruts in the road made by trucks). in a rut so tied by habits and customs that you are no longer interested in new or better methods (in a rut and looking for another job).
rutabaga (noun)a swede; a Swedish turnip; a thick bulbous edible root
ruthless (adjective)cruel, merciless, showing no pity (a ruthless judge who imposes harsh sentences). adv ruthlessly n ruthlessness
rye (noun)1 a grain used for making bread. 2 rye bread.
rye bread (noun)bread made with rye flour.
rye grass (noun)a type of grass used as fodder for animals.
Rypophobia fear of filth, defecation, or of being soiled (see list of phobias)
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