E (volume 6)

E, e(noun) 1 the fifth letter of the alphabet. 2 (mus) the third note of the scale of C major.
each (pronoun, adjective) every one taken singly or separately (each pupil is to bring money for the school trip/give a cake to each of the children).
eager(adjective) full of desire, keen (eager to learn eager for news). n eagerness.
eagle(noun) a large bird of prey.
eagle-eyed(adjective) having very keen sight (the eagle-eyed teacher saw the children exchange notes).
eaglet(noun) a young eagle.
ear1(noun) 1 the organ of hearing (she has a very sore ear). 2 the ability to hear the difference between sounds (a musical ear). 3 attention (have the president’s ear).
ear2(noun) a head or spike of corn.
earache(noun) a pain in the ear.
eardrum(noun) the tight skin across the inside of the ear that enables a person to hear sounds.
early(adjective) 1 before the time arranged (the baby’s early arrival). 2 near the beginning (in the early part of the century). 3 belonging to the first stages of development, etc (early musical instruments). 4 (fml) soon (we look forward to an early reply). adv 1 near the beginning (of a period of time, etc) (early in the afternoon). 2 sooner than usual, sooner than expected, sooner than often, etc (arrive early for work).
earmark(verb) to set aside for a special purpose (earmark some money for their children’s education).
earmuffs(noun, plural) pads that fit over the ears to keep them from getting cold (earmuffs made from fake fur).
earn(verb) 1 to get money in return for work (he earns more than $30,000 per year). 2 to deserve (earn their respect).
earnest(adjective) 1 serious. 2 determined. n earnestness. in earnest meaning what one says (they thought he was joking about leaving but he was in earnest).
earnings(noun, plural) wages, money paid for work done (pay tax on earnings).
earring(noun) an ornament worn on the ear.
earshot(noun) the distance within which one can hear something (be quiet—he’s within earshot).
earth(noun) 1 the planet on which we live (people used to think that the earth was flat). 2 the world as opposed to heaven (heaven and earth). 3 dry land, the ground or soil (the earth, sea and sky urth-en/ adj
earthly(adjective) having to do with the world, of worldly rather than heavenly things (earthly pleasures).
earthquake(noun) a shaking movement of the surface of the earth.
earthwork(noun) a defensive wall of earth.
earthworm(noun) a worm that lives in the soil.
earthy(adjective) 1 like, or of, earth (an earthy smell). 2 coarse, not refined (earthy humor).
ease(noun) 1 freedom from anxiety or pain (a mind at ease). 2 lack of difficulty (do the job with ease). 3 freedom from work; rest, comfort (a life of ease). 4 naturalness (ease of manner). vb 1 to lessen (easing the pain/the pain has eased). 2 to move gently or gradually (ease the piano through the door).
easel(noun) a stand to hold a picture, blackboard, etc, upright (an artist’s easel).
east (noun, adjective) and adv one of the four chief points of the compass, the direction in which the sun rises. adj eastern, eastwards. the East the countries of Asia.
Easter(noun) a Christian festival which commemorates the rising of Christ from the dead.
easterly(adjective) from or toward the east (easterly winds).
easy(adjective) 1 not difficult (easy tasks/easy exams). 2 free from anxiety or pain (an easy mind). 3 comfortable (an easy life). 4 relaxed, leisurely (walk with an easy stride).
easy-going(adjective) not easily worried or angered (an easy-going mother who is not upset by her children’s noise).
eat(verb) (pt ate, pp eaten) 1 to chew and swallow, as food (eat a lot of chocolate/eat only vegetarian food). 2 to wear away (acids eating metal).
eating disorder(noun) an emotional disorder in which the sufferer has an irrational attitude toward food.
eaves(noun, plural) that part of the roof that comes out beyond the walls.
eavesdrop(verb) (eavesdropped, eavesdropping) to try to hear what others are saying to each other privately (find out their secrets by eavesdropping on their conversation eevz-drop-er/.
ebb(noun) 1 the flowing back of the tide. 2 a falling away or weakening (the ebb of the emperor’s power). vb 1 to flow back (the tide ebbing). 2 to grow less, weak, faint, etc (enthusiasm began to ebb).
ebony(noun) a hard black wood. adj 1 made of ebony (the ebony keys on the piano). 2 black (the horse was called Ebony after the ebony colour of his coat).
eccentric(adjective) 1 odd, strange (an eccentric old woman ek-sen-tri-si-tee/.
Ecclesiologystudy of church affairs (see list of branches of science)
Ecclesiophobiafear of church (see list of phobias)
Eccrinologystudy of excretion (see list of branches of science)
echo(noun) (pl echoes) 1 the repeating of a sound by the reflection of sound waves from a surface (hear the echo in the cave). 2 an imitation (work that is an echo of Shakespeare). vb 1 to repeat, to throw back a sound (the cave echoed back his shout). 2 to imitate (echoing their leader’s behavior).
eclipse(noun) 1 the cutting off of the light from the sun by the moon coming between it and the earth. 2 the darkening of the face of the moon by the earth coming between it and the sun. 3 a failure caused by the unexpected success of another (a writer who suffered an eclipse when younger writers gained popularity). vb 1 to cut off the light from, to darken. 2 to make another seem inferior by outdoing (eclipsing her husband as a painter/eclipsed by her beautiful talented sister).
ecology(noun) 1 the science of the life of things in their physical surroundings (study ecology). 2 the relation of plants and living creatures to each other and to their surroundings (pollution affecting the ecology of the area). ecological adj.
Ecologystudy of environment (see list of branches of science)
e-commerce(noun) electronic commerce, business conducted on-line.
economic(adjective) 1 having to do with economics (the government’s economic policy). 2 designed to give a profit (charge an economic rent/not economic for the shop to open in the evening).
economical(adjective) careful of money, not wasteful (an economical meal/be economical with cream in cooking).
economics(noun) the study of the means of increasing the wealth of a community or nation.
Economicsstudy of material wealth (production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services) (see list of branches of science)
economist(noun) a person who studies economics.
economize, economise (Br)(verb) to spend or use carefully, to save, to be economical (economizing on gas by walking to work).
economy(noun) 1 management of the wealth, money, goods, etc, of a home, business or country. 2 sparing use of money (he said the whole family would have to practice economy).
Ecophobiafear of cataclysmic environmental change (see list of phobias)
ecosystem(noun) all the plants and living creatures that live in an area and depend on each other, together with their habitat (The ecosystem of the lakeshore is being threatened by factory waste).
ecstasy(noun) great delight or joy (religious ecstasy/be in ecstasies after her victory).
ecstatic(adjective) delighted, carried away by joy (ecstatic at the birth of their child/ecstatic players celebrated their win).
eczema(noun) a skin disease.
Edaphologystudy of soils (see list of branches of science)
eddy(noun) a whirling current of water or air, a whirlpool or whirlwind (eddies of mist on the mountain tops). vb to move in eddies (mist eddied round the mountain tops).
Eden(noun) (OT) the garden of Adam and Eve; paradise.
edge(noun) 1 the sharp side of a blade (put an edge on the knife). 2 a border or boundary (the edge of the lake). 3 keenness, sharpness (a wit with an edge edging away from their angry mother). 2 to put a border on (edge a lawn with flowers/edge a handkerchief with lace).
edgewise (adjective) also (Br) edgeways sideways (get the wardrobe through the door edgewise).
edging(noun) a border or fringe (the edging on the woolen shawl).
edible(adjective) able or fit to be eaten (food that is scarcely edible/edible berries).
edit(verb) to prepare for printing or publication (her job was to edit the manuscript).
edition(noun) the number of copies of a book or newspaper published at one time (the late edition of the newspaper).
editor(noun) 1 a person who edits (the editor of a manuscript). 2 a person who collects the material for a newspaper or magazine and selects what is to be published or who is in charge of a newspaper or part of a newspaper (a fashion editor).
editorial(adjective) of an editor. n an article by the editor or someone chosen by him or her on a matter of immediate interest (an editorial on the country’s economic situation).
educate(verb) to teach or train (educating children to the age of sixteen). n education.
educational(adjective) having to do with education (educational opportunities).
eel(noun) a snake-like fish.
eerie, eery(adjective) strange and frightening (eerie sounds in the night/the eerie feeling of a graveyard at night).
effect(noun) 1 result; power to bring about a change (a medicine that had little effect/angry words that had no effect on the child’s behavior). 2 impression (flower arrangements creating a colorful effect). 3 pl goods, property (personal effects). 4 pl lighting and sounds used in a play, film, etc (special effects in the horror film). vb to bring about, to succeed in doing, to produce (effecting a market change).
effective(adjective) 1 doing what is intended or desired, successful (an effective cure). 2 striking (an effective use of color). 3 actual, real (in effective control of the film). 4 in operation, working (a new system of taxation effective from next week).
effeminate(adjective) womanish, unmanly (a man walking in an effeminate way). n effeminacy.
effervesce(verb) to bubble or sparkle (champagne effervescing in the glasses). n effervescence.
effervescent(adjective) 1 bubbling, sparkling (effervescent wine). 2 lively and enthusiastic (young people in an effervescent mood).
efficient(adjective) 1 able to do what is necessary or intended without wasting time, energy, etc (an efficient filing system). 2 good at one’s job, capable (an efficient administrator). n efficiency.
effigy(noun) 1 a likeness in the form of a picture, statue or carving (stone effigies of Buddha). 2 the head on a coin. 3 a figure of a person (burn an effigy of the dictator).
effluent(adjective) flowing out from. n 1 the discharge of liquid waste matter, sewage, etc (the effluent from the factory). 2 a stream flowing from a larger stream. n effluence.
effort(noun) 1 an energetic attempt (make a real effort to arrive on time). 2 the making use of strength or ability (take a lot of effort to move the rock).
effortless(adjective) with ease, without trying hard (playing with effortless skill/what seemed an effortless victory).
effusive(adjective) expressing one’s feelings too freely; pretending to feel more than one really feels (an effusive welcome by the hostess). n effusiveness.
egg(noun) 1 an object, usually covered with a hard brittle shell, laid by a bird, reptile, etc, from which a young one is hatched. 2 such an object laid by the domestic hen and used as food (have a boiled egg for breakfast). 3 in the female mammal, the cell from which the young is formed; the ovum.
egg on(verb) to try to get somebody (to do something); to urge, to encourage (egg his friend on to steal the apples).
eggplant(noun) a vegetable with a shiny, dark purple skin, often egg-shaped or long and pear-shaped, used in cooking.
ego(noun) 1 the image a person has of himself or herself. 2 self confidence to the point of being conceited, egotism.
egoism(noun) 1 selfishness, self-centeredness. 2 egotism.
egoist(noun) a selfish person. adj egoistic.
egotism(noun) 1 excessive talking about yourself. 2 an exaggerated opinion of yourself.
egotist(noun) a person always talking of himself or herself (he’s such an egotist that he bores everyone with tales of his personal life). n egotism. adj egotistic, egotistical.
Egyptologystudy of ancient Egypt (see list of branches of science)
Eicophobiafear of home or home surroundings (see list of phobias)
Eidologystudy of mental imagery (see list of branches of science)
eight(noun) the number 8, coming between seven and nine.
eighteen(noun) the number 18, coming between seventeen and nineteen.
eighteenth (adjective)18th, coming after seventeen others. n one of eighteen equal parts.
eighth(adjective) 8th, coming after seven others. n one of eight equal parts.
eighty (noun) the number between seventy-nine and eighty-one. adj eightieth 80th.
Eisoptrophobiafear of mirrors or of seeing oneself in a mirror (see list of phobias)
either (adjective, pronoun, conjuction and adverb) one or other of two (either book will do/either of the restaurants is suitable).
eject(verb) to throw out (the pilot was ejected before the plane crashed).
ejection(noun) 1 act of throwing out. 2 the act of compelling someone to leave (the ejection of tenants who have not paid their rent).
Ekisticsstudy of human settlement (see list of branches of science)
elaborate(adjective) 1 worked out with great care (elaborate preparations). 2 having many parts (elaborate machines). 3 very decorative (an elaborate carving). vb 1 to work out very carefully; to add to and improve upon (they were constantly elaborating their plans). 2 to explain fully (elaborate on what you said). n elaboration.
elapse(verb) (fml) (of time) to pass (a few years had elapsed).
elastic(adjective) able to stretch or be stretched easily, but returning immediately to its former shape (a skirt with an elastic waistband). n 1 a rubber band. 2 a strip of material lined with rubber to make it elastic.
elasticity(noun) springiness.
elate(verb) to make very glad or proud (they were elated by the news of his victory). n elation.
elated(adjective) to be filled with happiness or pride (the elated parents watched their son graduate).
elbow(noun) 1 the joint between the forearm and upper arm. 2 a sharp bend or corner (an elbow in the pipe). vb to push with the elbow.
elder1(adjective) older (a younger sister and an elder brother). n 1 an older member of a community (the elders of the tribe). 2 an official in certain Christian churches (e.g. the Presbyterian).
elder2(noun) a tree with small purple berries.
elderly(adjective) old, getting old (seats reserved for elderly people).
eldest(adjective) oldest (her eldest daughter).
elect(verb) 1 (fml) to choose (elect to go by train). 2 to choose by voting (elect a new president). adj chosen. n 1 those chosen. 2 those chosen by God.
election(noun) act of choosing, especially by vote (a presidential election).
elector(noun) a person with the right to vote (politicians trying to convince the electors).
electoral(adjective) having to do with electors (the electoral roll).
electorate(noun) all those having the right to vote on a certain occasion (a high proportion of the electorate do not bother to vote).
electric(adjective) 1 having to do with electricity. 2 exciting, thrilling (an electric performance). npl electric fittings.
electrical(adjective) having to do with electricity, worked by electricity.
electrician(noun) a person who works with electricity or electrical apparatus.
electricity(noun) an energy produced by chemical or other action, a natural force that can be harnessed to give heat, light and power.
electrify(verb) 1 to put electricity into (electrify the railway line). 2 to thrill (electrified by the orchestra’s performance).
Electrochemistrystudy of relations between electricity and chemicals (see list of branches of science)
electrocute(verb) to kill by electricity (in some states convicted murderers are electrocuted). n electrocution.
electrode(noun) either of the two conductors through which electricity enters or leaves something, such as a battery.
Electrodynamicsstudy of the effects arising from the interactions of electric currents with magnets, with other currents, or with themselves (see list of branches of science)
Electrologystudy of electricity (see list of branches of science)
Electromagnetismstudy of electromagnetic force (see list of branches of science)
electron(noun) the negative electrical unit in an atom.
electronic(adjective) of a device, having many small parts, such as microchips and transistors, which control and direct an electric current (an electronic calculator).
electronics(noun) the branch of technology that is concerned with electronic devices such as computers and televisions.
Electrophobiafear of electricity (see list of phobias)
Electrostaticsstudy of static electricity (see list of branches of science)
elegant(adjective) 1 graceful, smart, stylish (an elegant woman e-le-ganse/.
elegy(noun) a mourning or sorrowful poem.
element(noun) 1 a necessary part (have all the elements of a good crime novel/a sensible economic policy is a vital element of government). 2 a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances and from which all other things are made up (elements such as hydrogen). 3 pl knowledge without which a subject cannot be properly understood (fail to grasp the elements of mathematics). the elements nature, the weather (exposed to the elements without shelter).
elemental(adjective) 1 having to do with elements. 2 having to do with the powers of nature (the elemental forces of nature). 3 basic (elemental truths).
elementary(adjective) 1 having to do with the beginning (elementary steps in mathematics). 2 simple, easy (elementary questions).
elephant(noun) a large very thick-skinned animal with a trunk and ivory tusks. white elephant a gift or purchase that turns out to be of no use, a useless possession that is troublesome to keep up or retain.
Eleutherophobiafear of freedom (see list of phobias)
elevate(verb) 1 (fml) to make finer, better, more educated, etc (elevating the minds of his pupils). 2 to raise to a higher place or rank (elevated him to the rank of captain).
elevation(noun) 1 the act of raising. 2 (fml) a hill (from an elevation above the city). 3 height (at an elevation of 1500 meters). 4 a plan showing a building as seen from one side. 5 the angle measuring height.
elevator(noun) a platform or cage for carrying people and goods to different levels of a building (take the elevator to the top floor).
eleven(noun) the number 11, coming between ten and twelve.
elevenCollective noun for cricketers (An eleven of cricketers) (see list of collective nouns)
eleventh(adjective) 11th, coming after ten others others. n one of eleven equal parts.
elf(noun) (pl elves) in fairy tales, a mischievous fairy. adj elfin, elfish, elvish.
elicatCollective noun for gloves (An elicat of gloves) (see list of collective nouns)
eligible(adjective) able to be chosen, suitable (eligible for the post e-li-ji-bi-le-tee/.
eliminate(verb) to get rid of (eliminating him from our list of suspects i-li-mi-nay-shun/.
elite(noun) a group that is at a higher level or rank, professionally, socially or in ability, etc (the elite of the tennis club/the elite of Boston society).
elixir(noun) (old) a magic liquid that, alchemists believed, could change any metal into gold, or enable people to live for ever.
elk(noun) a type of large deer.
ellipse(noun) an oval figure.
elm(noun) a type of tree with rough, jagged leaves.
elongate(verb) 1 to make longer (figures in the painting that are too elongated). 2 to stretch out (feel that the speaker had unnecessarily elongated his speech). n elongation.
elope(verb) to leave home secretly with one’s lover (decided to elope when their parents forbade them to marry). n elopement.
eloquent(adjective) 1 able to speak well, especially in public, and express one’s ideas and opinions effectively (an eloquent speaker). 2 showing or using such an ability (an eloquent appeal to possible blood donors). n eloquence.
else(adjective) 1 besides, also (what else did he say? decide to live somewhere else).
elsewhere(adverb) in another place (unhappy in his job and applying for jobs elsewhere).
elude(verb) 1 to escape or avoid by quickness, cleverness or trickery (a criminal who has eluded the police for many years). 2 to be difficult, etc, to understand or remember (a name that eludes me/a cure for cancer that has eluded the researchers).
Elurophobiafear of cats (see list of phobias)
elusive(adjective) 1 hard to remember, express, identify, etc (an elusive perfume). 2 hard to catch or track down (elusive criminals).
elves plural of elf.
email, e-mail(noun) 1 electronic mail, a system for sending communications from one computer to another, using a telephone connection and a modem. 2 a message sent by email. vb to send (a message) by email (email the list of club members).
emanate(verb) (fml) to come from (interesting smells emanating from the kitchen). n emanation.
emancipate(verb) to free from control (emancipate from slavery). n emancipation.
embalm(verb) to preserve a dead body with spices or chemicals.
embankment(noun) a mound of stones and earth built to shut in a river or to carry a road, railway, etc, over low ground.
embargo(noun) (pl embargoes) 1 an official order forbidding the departure or arrival of ships in the ports of a country. 2 a legal stoppage of commercial activity with another country (put an embargo on trade with countries practicing racism).
embark(verb) 1 to put or go on board ship. 2 to start (embarking on a new career). n embarkation.
embarrass(verb) 1 to cause to feel shy or uncomfortable (embarrass her by paying her compliments). 2 to involve in difficulties (find himself financially embarrassed). n embarrassment.
embarrassmentCollective noun for riches (An embarrassment of riches) (see list of collective nouns)
embassy(noun) 1 the duties of an ambassador. 2 the house of an ambassador. 3 a group of people sent by a country to act for it in another country.
embed(verb) to fix firmly and deeply into something (the stone was embedded in his foot/the instructions were embedded in her brain).
embers(noun, plural) 1 live cinders of a dying fire (stare into the embers of the fire). 2 the fading remains (trying to rekindle the embers of their love).
embezzle(verb) to steal money that one has been entrusted with by other people. n embezzlement.
embitter(verb) to make someone feel bitter, to increase anger or hatred (embittered by the disloyalty of his followers).
emblem(noun) an object that is regarded as a sign of something (the dove is the emblem of peace). adj emblematic, emblematical.
embodiment(noun) a living example (he is the embodiment of the old-fashioned gentleman/the embodiment of politeness).
embody(verb) 1 to give a solid form to, to express in a real or physical form (the country’s constitution embodies the principles of freedom). 2 to include (a computer system embodying many new features).
embolden(verb) to give courage, to make bold (emboldened by the silence they moved forward).
emboss(verb) to make a raised pattern on (embossing leather with a pattern/with the firm’s name and address embossed on the writing paper).
embrace(verb) 1 to hold in the arms, to hug (embracing his wife fondly). 2 to include (a speech that embraced many topics). Also n.
embroider(verb) 1 to decorate with needlework (embroidering a handkerchief with a border of roses). 2 to add interesting or exaggerated details to a story (embroidered the account of his unhappy childhood).
embroidery(noun) 1 the art of decorating with needlework. 2 the act of adding interesting or exaggerated detail to. 3 decorative needlework.
embryo(noun) 1 the form of any creature before it is born or grows (an egg containing the embryo of a chicken). 2 the beginning stage of anything (plans that are yet in embryo). adj embryonic.
Embryologystudy of embryos (see list of branches of science)
emerald(noun) a bright green precious stone. adj bright green (an emerald dress).
emerge(verb) 1 to come out (swimmers emerging from the water). 2 to become known (facts beginning to emerge i-mer-jense i-mer-jent/.
emergency(noun) a state of affairs requiring immediate action (call 911 in an emergency/use one’s savings only in an emergency).
emery(noun) a very hard mineral, made into powder and used for polishing or sharpening metals.
Emetologystudy of vomiting (see list of branches of science)
Emetophobiafear of vomiting (see list of phobias)
emigrant(noun) a person who emigrates. Also adj.
emigrate(verb) to leave one’s country and go to live in another (emigrating to find work overseas). n emigration.
eminence(noun) 1 (fml) a high place, a hill (the view from the eminence above the town). 2 fame (achieve eminence as an artist). 3 the title given to a cardinal in the RC Church.
eminent(adjective) distinguished, very well-known (one of our most eminent writers).
emit(verb) (emitted, emitting) to send or give out (chimneys emitting smoke e-mi-shun/.
Emmenologystudy of menstruation (see list of branches of science)
emotion(noun) 1 strong or deep feeling (emotions such as love and hate). 2 the moving or upsetting of the mind or feelings (overcome by emotion).
emotional(adjective) 1 of the emotions (emotional problems). 2 causing or showing deep feelings (an emotional farewell). 3 easily moved by emotion (a very emotional person).
empathy(noun) the ability to imagine oneself in another’s situation (I felt empathy for what he was going through). vb empathize, also empathise (Br).
emperor(noun) the ruler of an empire. f empress.
emphasis(noun) (pl emphases) 1 the added force with which certain words or parts of words are spoken (place the emphasis on the first syllable). 2 special meaning, value, importance, etc (the emphasis in the firm is on efficiency).
emphasize(verb) also emphasise (Br) 1 to say with emphasis (emphasizing the first syllable of the word). 2 to call attention to specially, to stress (emphasized the trustworthiness of his friends).
emphatic(adjective) forceful, firm and definite (an emphatic denial).
empire(noun) 1 a group of countries under the rule of one of their number. 2 a large industrial organization controlling many firms (a fast-food empire).
employ(verb) 1 to give work to (a firm employing hundreds of factory workers). 2 to use (employed tact).
employee(noun) a person paid to work for another person or for a firm (the firm had to sack several of its employees).
employer(noun) someone who gives work to another.
employment(noun) job, occupation (seek employment in industry).
emporium(noun) (pl emporia or emporiums) 1 a market. 2 a large store in which many different kinds of things are sold.
empower(verb) to give the right or power to (police empowered to stop and search cars).
empressfemale emperor
empty(adjective) having nothing inside (empty barrels empty the cupboard). 2 to become empty (shops emptying at closing time). n emptiness.
emu(noun) a large Australian flightless bird.
emulate(verb) (fml) to try to be like or as good as or better than (try to emulate his elder brother on the football field).
emulation(noun) act of emulating; rivalry.
emulsion(noun) 1 a mixture of two liquids that would normally remain separate (e.g. oil and vinegar). 2 a type of paint.
enable(verb) to give the power or means to do something (more money enabling the firm to expand).
enact(verb) 1 to lay down by law, to pass a law (laws enacted in Congress). 2 to act, perform (enact scenes from Shakespeare).
enamel(noun) 1 a smooth, glossy coating put on metals or wood to preserve or decorate them. 2 the outer covering of the teeth. vb (enamelled, enamelling) to cover with enamel.
encase(verb) to put in a case or covering (encasing the broken leg in plaster).
enchant(verb) 1 (old) to put a magic spell on (the enchanted wood). 2 to delight (children enchanted by the ballet). n enchanter. f enchantress. n enchantment.
encircle(verb) to surround; to make a circle round (a field encircled by trees in-sir-cl-ment/.
enclose(verb) 1 to shut in, to fence in (enclosing the garden within a wall). 2 to send with a letter (enclose an application form).
enclosure(noun) 1 a space shut or fenced in (an enclosure for ponies). 2 something sent with a letter (a check sent as an enclosure).
encompass(verb) 1 to surround. 2 to include or comprise (a course encompassing a wide range of subjects).
encore(adverb) again, once more. n 1 a call to a performer to repeat something or perform something else. 2 the repetition of part of a performance or a further performance by the same person or people given after the main performance. Also vb.
encounter(noun) 1 a meeting, especially an unexpected one (a brief encounter with an old friend). 2 a fight or quarrel (an encounter between the opposing armies). vb to meet (encountered her ex-husband in the street/encountering several problems).
encourage(verb) 1 to make bold (their victory encouraged the troops). 2 to urge on (encouraging the pupils to stay on at school). n encouragement.
encyclopedia (noun), also encyclopaedia (Br) a book or set of books containing information about every subject or about every branch of one subject.
encyclopedic(adjective) very detailed or complete (encyclopedic knowledge).
end(noun) 1 the last part of anything (the end of the book strive toward such an end). vb to bring or come to an end (ending his life/the book ends happily).
endanger(verb) to put someone or something in a dangerous or harmful situation (endanger their health by smoking). adj endangered in danger or at risk, especially of ceasing to exist (trying to conserve an endangered species).
endear(verb) to make dear (she endeared herself to him by being kind to his mother).
endeavor(verb) also endeavour (Br) to try, to try hard (endeavoring to win). n attempt, effort (make every endeavor to succeed).
endemic(adjective) found specially among one people or in one place (endemic diseases).
Endemiologystudy of local diseases (see list of branches of science)
endless(adjective) 1 having no end (an endless conveyor belt). 2 seemingly having no end (the endless noise).
Endocrinologystudy of glands (see list of branches of science)
endorse(verb) 1 to sign one’s name on the back of a check or document. 2 to express approval or support (his proposals endorsed by the committee in-dorss-ment/.
endow(verb) 1 to provide with a permanent income. 2 to give, to grant (endowed with great charm). n endowment.
endurance(noun) the ability to endure or bear patiently (the marathon race is a test of endurance/bear pain with endurance).
endure(verb) 1 (fml) to last (houses built to endure). 2 to bear patiently (enduring a lot of pain). 3 to put up with (hard to endure noisy neighbors).
enemy(noun) 1 a person who is unfriendly, someone who acts against another (make a lot of enemies in business). 2 those with whom one is at war (form an alliance against the enemy). Also adj.
energetic(adjective) active, powerful, vigorous.
Energeticsstudy of energy under transformation within various fields (see list of branches of science)
energize(verb) also energise (Br) to give energy to (healthy food energizing him).
energy(noun) active power, force, vigor (set about the work with energy/lack energy since her illness).
Enetephobiafear of pins (see list of phobias)
Enetophobiafear of pins (see list of phobias)
enforce(noun) to cause to be obeyed or carried out (police enforcing traffic laws). n enforcement.
engage(verb) 1 (fml) to bind oneself by a promise, to promise (engage to pay the money back in installments). 2 to begin to employ (engaging a gardener). 3 to begin fighting (the armies engaged at dawn). 4 to busy (oneself) with (engage oneself in household activities). 5 to attract and keep (engaging the child’s attention).
engagement(noun) 1 (fml) a written agreement (unable to meet all his financial engagements). 2 a promise to marry (announce their engagement). 3 an arrangement to meet someone, an appointment (a previous engagement). 4 a battle (an engagement that ended the war).
engaging(adjective) pleasing, attractive (an engaging smile).
engine(noun) 1 a machine that produces power (a car engine). 2 a railway locomotive.
engineer(noun) 1 a person who looks after engines. 2 a person who makes or designs machinery, roads, bridges, etc. 3 a person who drives a railway locomotive. vb to arrange for or cause something to happen, usually by clever, cunning or secret means (engineered a surprise party for her birthday/engineering his son’s promotion).
engineering(noun) the science of making and using machines.
Engineering studiesstudy of engineering (see list of branches of science)
engrave(verb) 1 to cut or carve on metal, stone, wood, etc (engraving his name on the trophy that he won/engrave flowers on the table top). 2 to cut a picture on a metal plate in order to print copies of it.
engraving(noun) a print from an engraved plate.
engross(verb) to take up one’s whole time or attention (children engrossed by the film). n engrossment.
engulf(verb) to swallow up (a flood that threatened to engulf the town/people engulfed with grief).
enhance(verb) to increase in amount, value, importance, etc; to increase, to improve (qualifications enhancing her job prospects in-hanse-ment/.
enigma(noun) a person or thing that is difficult to understand; a mystery (we’ve known her for years but she is still a bit of an enigma to us/his background is an enigma to us).
enigmatic, enigmatical(adjective) having to do with an enigma, mysterious (an enigmatic smile).
Enigmatologystudy of enigmas (puzzles) (see list of branches of science)
Enissophobiafear of having committed an unpardonable sin or of criticism (see list of phobias)
enjoy(verb) 1 to take pleasure in (enjoy reading enjoy a comfortable income). adj enjoyable. n enjoyment.
enlarge(verb) 1 (fml) to make larger (enlarging the lawn). 2 to reproduce (a photograph) on a larger scale. 3 to talk at length about (enlarge on his previous comments).
enlargement(noun) 1 act of making larger. 2 a larger copy of a photograph.
enlighten(verb) (fml) to give more and correct information or knowledge about (enlighten me as to the cause of the fire). n enlightenment.
enlist(verb) 1 to join the armed forces. 2 to obtain support (enlist friends to help paint the house). 3 to obtain from (enlist help from the neighbors). n enlistment.
enliven(verb) to brighten, to cheer (enliven a dull party).
Enochlophobiafear of crowds (see list of phobias)
enormity(noun) 1 immensity (the enormity of the task). 2 a great wickedness (the enormity of the crime). 3 a crime, an act of great wickedness (enormities committed during the war).
enormous(adjective) huge, very large (an enormous creature/enormous sums of money).
Enosiophobia fear of having committed an unpardonable sin or of criticism (see list of phobias)
enough(adjective) as many or as much as is required (enough food for the four of them). n a sufficient amount (I have eaten enough).
enquiresee inquire.
enrage(verb) to make very angry (enraged by the child’s impertinence).
enrapture(noun) (fml) to fill with delight (enraptured by the dancer’s performance).
enrich(verb) 1 to make rich (a country enriched by its oil resources). 2 to improve greatly in quality (enriching the soil in-rich-ment/.
enroll(verb) (enrolled, enrolling) 1 to write (a name) in a list (enroll her daughter in the ballet class). 2 to join or become a member (decide to enroll in the aerobics class). n enrollment.
ensemble(noun) 1 a group of musicians regularly performing together (a woodwind ensemble). 2 clothing made up of several items, an outfit (wear a green ensemble to the wedding). 3 all the parts of a thing taken as a whole (the furniture of the room forms a pleasing ensemble).
ensembleCollective noun for homosexuals (An ensemble of homosexuals) (see list of collective nouns)
enslave(verb) (fml) to make a slave of (enslaved by her beauty).
ensue(verb) to follow upon, to result from (the fire and the panic that ensued).
ensure(verb) to make sure (he ensured that the family was well provided for/ensuring their success).
entail(verb) 1 to leave land or property to be passed down through a succession of heirs. 2 to make necessary, to involve (a post that entails a lot of hard work). n land or property so left.
entangle(verb) 1 to cause to become twisted, tangled or caught (a bird entangled in wire netting/a long scarf entangled in the rose bushes). 2 to get into difficulties or complications (become entangled in an unhappy love affair).
entanglement(noun) a difficult situation, involvement (his entanglement with the police).
enter(verb) 1 to go or come into (entered the building by the back door). 2 to become a member of (enter politics). 3 to put down in writing (entering the money spent).
enterprise(noun) 1 an undertaking or project, especially one that is difficult or daring (a new business enterprise). 2 willingness to take risks or to try out new ideas (show enterprise by starting their own business).
enterprising(adjective) having or showing enterprise (an enterprising young man/an enterprising scheme).
entertain(verb) 1 to receive as a guest (entertain them in your own home). 2 to please, to amuse (a magician to entertain the children at the birthday party). 3 (fml) to consider (refuse to entertain the idea).
entertainment(noun) 1 the act of entertaining (the entertainment of dinner guests/the entertainment of children at the party). 2 amusement (children seeking entertainment). 3 something that entertains, such as a public performance (a musical entertainment).
enthrall(verb) (enthralled, enthralling) to delight, to enchant (enthralled by her performance). n enthrallment.
enthrone(verb) (fml) to place on a throne (enthroning the new king). n enthronement.
enthuse(verb) to be, become or cause to be enthusiastic, to show enthusiasm (enthusing over the new fashions).
enthusiasm(noun) great eagerness, keenness (show no enthusiasm for the new scheme/play the game with great enthusiasm).
enthusiast(noun) a person who is very keen (a baseball enthusiast).
enthusiastic(adjective) full of enthusiasm (enthusiastic about the new house/enthusiastic theatergoers).
entice(verb) to tempt, to attract by offering something (enticing birds into the garden by putting out food). n enticement. adj enticing.
entire(adjective) whole, complete (paint the entire house in-tire-lee/.
entirety(noun) completeness.
entitle(verb) 1 to give a right to (a ticket entitling us to attend the exhibition). 2 to give a name to (a book entitled “Green Dragons”.)
entity(noun) 1 existence. 2 anything that exists (separate political entities).
Entomologystudy of insects (see list of branches of science)
Entomophobiafear of insects (see list of phobias)
entourageCollective noun for attendants (An entourage of attendants) (see list of collective nouns)
Entozoologystudy of parasites that live inside larger organisms (see list of branches of science)
entrails(noun, plural) the bowels, the internal organs of the body (a sheep’s entrails).
entranceCollective noun for actresses (An entrance of actresses) (see list of collective nouns)
entrance1(verb) to delight, to fill with wonder (children entranced by the lights on the Christmas tree).
entrance2(noun) 1 coming or going in (applaud the entrance of the actor). 2 a place by which one enters (e.g. a door or gate) (the side entrance of the building).
entrant(noun) a person who puts his or her name in for or joins (entrants in the race/the youngest entrant won the competition).
entrap(verb) (entrapped, entrapping) to catch in a trap or by a trick.
entreat(verb) (fml) to ask earnestly (entreat her to help him).
entreaty(noun) an earnest request (the tyrant refused to listen to her entreaties for mercy).
entrée(noun) a main course at dinner.
entrench(verb) 1 to dig ditches around, thus putting oneself in a strong position (with the enemy army entrenched across the river). 2 to establish firmly or in a strong position (entrenched in that job for years/entrenched in old-fashioned ideas and attitudes).
entrust(verb) to give into the care of (entrust her children to him).
entry(noun) 1 act of entering (try to gain entry to the locked building/their country’s entry into the war). 2 a way in (the entry to the apartment block). 3 something written in a diary, cash book, etc (read out the entry for yesterday).
enunciate(verb) to speak or state, to pronounce in a distinct way (enunciating his words clearly). n enunciation.
envelop(verb) to cover or surround completely (mountains enveloped in mist/a long coat enveloping a small figure).
envelope(noun) 1 a wrapper or cover, especially one made of paper for a letter (address the envelope).
enviable(adjective) causing envy, very desirable (an enviable lifestyle).
envious(adjective) full of envy, jealous (friends envious of her achievement/envious neighbors looking at her new car).
environment(noun) 1 surroundings. 2 all the conditions and surroundings that influence human character. 3 the natural world in which people, animals and plants live. adj environmental.
envisage(verb) (fml) to picture to oneself (I could not envisage myself agreeing to such a plan/impossible to envisage him as a young man).
envoy(noun) a messenger, especially one sent to speak for his or her government in another country (envoys sent to discuss a peace treaty with France).
envy(noun) 1 a feeling of discontent caused by someone else’s good fortune or success, especially when one would like these for oneself (try to hide their envy at his winning the medal look with envy at her new car). 2 something that causes envy (a dress that was the envy of her friends). vb to feel envy toward or at (I envy him his good luck).
Enzymologystudy of enzymes (see list of branches of science)
eon (noun) also aeon (Br) 1 an age; an immeasurably long time. 2 the longest division of geological time equal to two or more eras.
Eosophobiafear of dawn or daylight (see list of phobias)
epaulette(noun) a flap of material, sometimes of another color, worn on the shoulder of a uniform jacket (a soldier’s epaulettes).
Ephebiatricsstudy of adolescence (see list of branches of science)
Ephebiphobiafear of teenagers or of young people (see list of phobias)
ephemeral(adjective) lasting for only a short time (ephemeral pleasures/ephemeral fashions in dress).
epic(noun) 1 a long poem telling of heroic deeds (Homer’s Iliad is a famous epic). 2 a story, movie, etc, dealing with heroic deeds and exciting adventures (watch an epic about the Roman empire). adj of or like an epic; heroic; in the grand style (an epic journey).
epidemic(noun) a disease or condition that attacks many people at the same time (an epidemic of influenza/a measles epidemic).
Epidemiologystudy of diseases and epidemics (see list of branches of science)
epilepsy(noun) a disease causing fits of unconsciousness and sudden attacks of uncontrolled movements of the body. adj and n epileptic.
Epileptologystudy of epilepsy (see list of branches of science)
epilog (noun) also epilogue (Br) 1 a speech addressed to the audience at the end of a play (the epilogue in Hamlet). 2 a part or section added at the end of a book, program, etc. See also prolog.
Epiphany(noun) the Christian festival which commemorates the revealing of Jesus Christ to the Magi or three wise men from the east.
episode(noun) 1 a particular event or a series of events that is separate from but forms part of a larger whole (enjoy the episode in the novel where the hero meets an elephant/episodes in her youth that she wants to forget). 2 a part of a radio or television serial that is broadcast at one time (miss last week’s episode).
episodic(adjective) consisting of events not clearly connected with each other.
Epistaxiophobiafear of nosebleeds (see list of phobias)
Epistemologystudy of grounds of knowledge (see list of branches of science)
Epistemophobiafear of knowledge (see list of phobias)
epitaph(noun) words referring to a dead person, inscribed on his or her tombstone.
epitome(noun) 1 a person or thing that is a perfect example of a quality, type, etc (she is the epitome of kindness/he is the epitome of the perfect gentleman). 2 something that in a small way perfectly represents a larger or wider idea, issue, etc (the family’s hardship was the epitome of the poverty affecting the whole country). 3 (fml) a summary, an abstract (an epitome of the talks given at the conference).
epitomize(verb) also epitomise (Br) 1 to be an epitome of (he epitomizes the computer nerd/the downturn epitomizes the country’s economic problems). 2 (fml) to summarize, to describe briefly (epitomizing the lecture in a few paragraphs).
epoch(noun) 1 a period of time in history, life, etc, especially one in which important events occurred (an epoch characterized by wars). 2 the start of such a period.
equal(adjective) 1 the same in size, number, value, etc (earn an equal amount of money). 2 able (to do something) (not equal to the task). n a person the same as another in rank or ability (her intellectual equal). vb (equalled, equalling) to be equal to (sales figures that equal last year’s).
equality(noun) the state of being equal (fighting for equality of women in salary scales/seeking racial equality).
equalize(verb) also equalise (Br) to make or become equal (the home team equalized).
equanimityCollective noun for tranquilizers (An equanimity of tranquilizers) (see list of collective nouns)
equate(verb) 1 to state that certain things are equal. 2 to think of as equal or the same (equating financial success with happiness).
equation(noun) a statement that two things are equal (a mathematical equation).
equator(noun) an imaginary line round the earth, halfway between the poles.
equatorial(adjective) 1 having to do with the equator (an equatorial climate). 2 on or near the equator (the equatorial rain forest).
equi-prefix equal.
equilateral(adjective) having all sides equal (equilateral triangle).
equilibrium(noun) 1 a balance between equal weights (scale in equilibrium). 2 steadiness (a disease of the ear affecting his equilibrium). 3 balanced state of the mind, emotions, etc (try to maintain his equilibrium in a difficult situation).
Equinophobiafear of horses (see list of phobias)
equinox(noun) either of the two times in the year at which the sun crosses the equator and day and night are equal. adj equinoctial.
equip(verb) (equipped, equipping) to provide the things necessary for doing an activity, to fit out (equip a new operating theater/equip themselves with climbing gear).
equipment(noun) outfit, the set of things needed for a particular activity (mountaineering equipment/video equipment).
equity(noun) fairness, justice (try to establish equity in sentencing criminals).
equivalent(adjective) 1 equal in value, amount, meaning, etc (a sum of money equivalent to $15,000). n an equivalent thing (the equivalent of 500 grams).
equivocationCollective noun for politicians (An equivocation of politicians) (see list of collective nouns)
era(noun) 1 a long period of time, starting from some important or particular event (the Cold War era). 2 a period of time marked by an important event or events (the era of the steam engine).
eradicate(verb) to root out, to destroy completely (eradicating weeds from the garden try to eradicate violence). n eradication.
erase(verb) to rub out, to remove (erasing pencil marks he accidentally erased an important file on his computer). n eraser.
ere(adverb, conjuction, preposition) (old or lit) before (ere break of day).
erect(adjective) standing up straight (soldiers standing erect). vb 1 to build (erect apartment blocks). 2 to set upright (erect a tent). n erection.
Eremologystudy of deserts (see list of branches of science)
Eremophobiafear of being alone or lonely (see list of phobias)
Ereuthophobiafear of red lights or blushing or color red (see list of phobias)
Ereuthrophobiafear of blushing (see list of phobias)
Ergasiophobiafear of work or functioning or surgeon’s fear of operating on a patient (see list of phobias)
Ergologystudy of effects of work on humans (see list of branches of science)
Ergonomicsstudy of people at work (see list of branches of science)
Ergophobiafear of work (see list of phobias)
ermine(noun) 1 a type of weasel. 2 its white winter fur (robes trimmed with ermine).
erode(verb) to destroy or wear away gradually (rocks eroded by the sea i-ro-zhun/.
erotic(adjective) having to do with love or sexual desire (erotic literature).
Erotophobiafear of sexual love or sexual abuse (see list of phobias)
err(verb) (fml) to make a mistake, to do wrong (admit that he erred in leaving his wife).
errand(noun) 1 a short journey made to give a message, deliver goods, etc, to someone (send the child on an errand). 2 the purpose of such a journey (accomplish her errand).
errant(adjective) 1 (old) wandering (knight errant). 2 (fml) doing wrong (errant husbands).
erratic(adjective) not steady, irregular, uneven, unpredictable (an erratic sales pattern).
error(noun) 1 a mistake (a spelling error). 2 the state of being mistaken (a letter sent to your address in error).
eruditionCollective noun for editors (An erudition of editors) (see list of collective nouns)
erupt(verb) to break or burst out (volcanoes erupting/father erupting in anger).
eruption(noun) act of breaking or bursting out (e.g. of a volcano).
Erythrophobiafear of red lights or blushing or color red (see list of phobias)
Erytophobiafear of red lights or blushing or color red (see list of phobias)
escalate(verb) 1 to rise or increase (house prices escalating). 2 to increase in intensity (a war escalating rapidly).
escalator(noun) a moving staircase (take the escalator to the second floor).
escapade(noun) a foolish or risky adventure (childhood escapades such as stealing apples from orchards/the romantic escapades of the heroine).
escape(verb) 1 to get out of the way of, to avoid (escape punishment). 2 to free oneself from (escape from prison). 3 to leak (gas escaping). 4 to avoid being noticed, remembered, etc (a name that escapes me). n 1 act of escaping. 2 a leakage.
Escapologystudy of freeing oneself from constraints (see list of branches of science)
Eschatologystudy of death; final matters (see list of branches of science)
eschew(verb) (fml) to keep away from, to avoid (try to eschew crowded places/aim to eschew trouble).
escort(verb) to go with as a guard or partner to show the way, or as an honor (supply ships escorted by a warship escort his cousin to the ball). n 1 a guard, a bodyguard (ships acting as an escort to the royal yacht). 2 a partner, a companion (he was her escort to the ball).
Eskimo(noun) one of the orginal inhabitants of Northern Canada, parts of Alaska, Greenland and parts of Siberia, or one of their descendants, many of whom, especially in North America and Greenland prefer to be called Inuit amd regard “Eskimo” as offensive.
esophagus (noun) also oesophagus (Br) the tube that goes from your throat to your stomach.
especial(adjective) (fml) more than ordinary, particular (an especial favorite of hers).
especially(adverb) specially, particularly, markedly (especially pleased to see her today).
espionage(noun) spying (involved in espionage during the war).
essay(verb) (fml or old) to try (foolish to essay that task). n 1 (fml or old) an attempt (an unsuccessful essay at climbing the mountain). 2 a written composition (pupils asked to write an essay on holidays).
essence(noun) 1 the nature or necessary part of anything (confidence could be said to be the essence of success). 2 a substance obtained from a plant, etc, in concentrated form (vanilla essence).
essential(adjective) 1 necessary, very important, that cannot be done without (essential equipment for diving/it is essential to take warm clothing). 2 of the basic or inner nature of something, fundamental (the essential difference between the two methods). n something that cannot be done without (air conditioning is an essential).
establish(verb) 1 to set up (establish a local branch of the society/take time to establish a new business). 2 to place or fix in a position, etc, usually permanently (establish herself as the local bridge expert). 3 to prove, to show to be true (establish an alibi).
establishment(noun) 1 act of setting up (the establishment of a new business). 2 a group of people employed in an organization, the staff of a household (in charge of a large establishment). 3 a place of business, the premises of a business organization or large institution (an educational establishment). the Establishment the people holding important positions in a country, community, etc, and usually supporting traditional ways, etc.
estate(noun) 1 all one’s property and money (on her death her estate is to be divided between her children). 2 area of land, especially in the country, with one owner (owns a large estate in Connecticut). 3 (old) political or social group or class (the nobility, the clergy, and the commons comprise the Three Estates). 4 (fml or old) condition (the holy estate of matrimony). See real estate.
esteem(verb) to think highly of (the artist’s work is highly esteemed). n respect, regard (hold him in high esteem as a teacher).
estimate(verb) 1 to judge size, amount, etc, roughly, to guess (estimating the distance at ten kilometers). 2 to calculate the probable cost of (estimate the repairs to the house at $2000). n 1 an opinion. 2 a judgment as to the value or cost of a thing.
estimation(noun) 1 judgment (give his estimation as to the value of the vase). 2 opinion (of someone) (she was not a good artist in his estimation/go down in their estimation).
estuary(noun) the mouth of a river as far as the tide flows up it.
etc(abbreviation) for et cetera, and all the rest (clear up all the plates, etc).
etch(verb) to cut a picture on a metal plate by use of acids in order to print copies of it.
etching(noun) a picture printed by etching (etchings of the harbor hanging on the wall).
eternal(adjective) 1 everlasting, without beginning or end (believe in eternal life). 2 seeming never to stop (tired of their eternal arguments).
eternity(noun) 1 everlasting existence, with no beginning and no end; unending life after death. 2 (inf) a very long time (wait an eternity for a bus).
ether(noun) 1 the clear upper air. 2 formerly, an invisible substance supposed to fill all space and to pass on electric waves. 3 a colorless liquid, often formerly used as an anesthetic.
ethical(adjective) 1 having to do with right and wrong (the doctor’s behavior was not considered ethical). 2 relating to ethics (ethical problems).
ethics(noun) 1 the study of right and wrong. 2 rules or principles of behavior (the ethics of protecting a member of the family from the police).
ethnic(adjective) having to do with human races or their customs, food, dress, etc (ethnic restaurants).
Ethnobiologystudy of dynamic relationships between peoples (see list of branches of science)
Ethnobotanystudy of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people (see list of branches of science)
Ethnochoreologystudy of dances and its implication in culture (see list of branches of science)
Ethnogenystudy of origins of races or ethnic groups (see list of branches of science)
Ethnologystudy of cultures (see list of branches of science)
Ethnomethodologystudy of everyday communication and social interaction (see list of branches of science)
Ethnomusicologystudy of comparative musical systems (see list of branches of science)
Ethologystudy of natural or biological character (see list of branches of science)
Ethonomicsstudy of economic and ethical principles of a society (see list of branches of science)
Etiologystudy of causes, especially of disease (see list of branches of science)
etiquette(noun) the rules of polite behavior, good manners (a book on wedding etiquette).
etymology(noun) 1 the study of the history of words. 2 an explanation of the history of a particular word (dictionaries giving etymologies). adj etymological. n etymologist.
Etymologystudy of origins of words (see list of branches of science)
EU(abbreviation) for European Union, a group of 27 European countries which have joined together for economic and political purposes.
eucalyptus(noun) 1 an Australian gum tree. 2 the oil from its leaves, used in the treatment of colds.
euphemism(noun) the use of mild words or phrases to say something unpleasant (e.g. fairy tale for lie). adj euphemistic.
Euphobiafear of hearing good news (see list of phobias)
euro(noun) the common unit of currency in the following EU countries: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.
European UnionEU.
Eurotophobiafear of female genitalia (see list of phobias)
Euthenicsstudy of improving living conditions (see list of branches of science)
evacuate(verb) 1 to go away from (a place) (evacuating the area as the enemy army approached). 2 (fml) to make empty (evacuate the bowels). 3 to send to a place of safety in wartime (children evacuated from areas likely to be bombed in World War II). n evacuation.
evade(verb) 1 to keep oneself away from (evading the police). 2 to dodge, to find a way of not doing something, especially by using trickery, deception, etc (evaded military service by pretending to suffer from asthma). 3 to refuse to answer directly (evade the question). n evasion.
evaluate(verb) to work out the value of (difficult to evaluate his success as a writer on such little evidence). n evaluation.
evangelic, evangelical(adjective) 1 having to do with the Christian Gospels. 2 accepting the Bible as the only guide to faith.
evangelist(noun) 1 one of the four Gospel writers. 2 a preacher of the Gospel.
evaporate(verb) 1 to turn into vapor and disappear (the water in the puddles soon evaporated). 2 to disappear (all hope gradually evaporating). n evaporation.
evasionsee evade.
evasive(adjective) 1 having the purpose of evading (take evasive action). 2 not straightforward, not frank (give evasive answers).
eve(noun) 1 (old) evening. 2 the day before (Christmas Eve). 3 the time before an important event (on the eve of the battle).
even(adjective) 1 level (an even temperature). 2 smooth (even ground). 3 equal (scores now even). 4 divisible by 2 (even numbers). 5 calm (of even temper). adv just (even as we speak). (intensifier) used to suggest that the context of a statement is unexpected (even you can do that). vb 1 to make smooth or level (even the ground). 2 to make equal (even the score). n evenness.
evening(noun) the close of day.
event(noun) 1 anything that happens, an incident (the events leading up to the war). 2 a single race or contest at sports or races (athletic events).
eventful(adjective) full of interesting or exciting happenings (an eventful life/an eventful day).
eventual(adjective) happening as a result, final (his criminal behavior and eventual imprisonment).
eventuality(noun) a possible happening (try to allow for any eventuality in planning the celebration).
eventually(adverb) finally, at length (after many attempts, he eventually passed the exam).
ever(adverb) always, at all times.
evergreen(noun) a tree or plant that has green leaves all the year round. adj always green (evergreen trees).
everlasting(adjective) 1 never ending (everlasting life). 1 seemingly without end, frequent (their everlasting complaints).
evermore(adverb) for ever (promise to love her for evermore).
every(adjective) each one (every child was present).
everybody (pronoun) every person (everybody should take regular exercise).
everyday(adjective) 1 happening every day (everyday duties). 2 usual, ordinary (everyday clothes).
everyone (pronoun) every person (everyone suddenly burst out singing).
everything (pronoun) all things being considered as a group (everything in this room is filthy).
evict(verb) to put out of a house or off land by order of a court (evict tenants for not paying rent). n eviction.
evidence(noun) 1 information given to show a fact is true (produce evidence of his innocence). 2 the statement made by a witness in a court of law (give evidence at the murder trial).
evident(adjective) clear, easily understood, obvious (it was evident that she was ill/her evident unhappiness).
evil(adjective) 1 wicked, bad, sinful (an evil man/evil deeds). 2 unpleasant, nasty (an evil smell). n 1 wickedness (feel surrounded by evil in that house). 2 anything bad or harmful (the evils of the world).
evoke(verb) 1 to call up (evoking memories of childhood). 2 to give rise to, to cause (her tears evoked sympathy from the crowd). n evocation.
evolution(noun) 1 the belief that life began in lower forms of creature and that these gradually changed over millions of years into the highest forms, such as humans (Darwin’s theory of evolution). 2 development (the evolution of a modern political system).
evolve(verb) 1 to work out (evolving an efficient filing system in the office). 2 to develop gradually (a system of efficient government evolved).
ewe(noun) a female sheep (ewes and rams).
exact(adjective) 1 absolutely correct, accurate in every detail (the exact measurements/an exact copy of the antique vase). 2 showing or taking great care (require to be very exact in that kind of work). vb 1 to force to make payment. 2 to demand and obtain.
exacting(adjective) needing a lot of work or attention (an exacting job).
exaggerate(verb) 1 to speak or think of something as being better or more (or worse or less) than it really is (exaggerating her unhappiness to gain people’s sympathy). 2 to go beyond the truth in describing something (you can’t believe what she says—she always exaggerates). n exaggeration.
exalt(verb) 1 (fml) to raise in power or rank (he has been exalted to general). 2 to praise highly (exalt God). n exaltation.
exaltationCollective noun for larks (An exaltation of larks) (see list of collective nouns)
examine(verb) 1 to look at closely and carefully in order to find out something (the doctor examined the child ig-za-mi-nay-shun ig-za-mi-ner/.
examinee(noun) a person who is being examined.
example(noun) 1 one thing chosen to show what others of the same kind are like, a model (an example of the artist’s work/an example of his bad behavior). 2 a person or thing deserving to be imitated (the saint’s patience was an example to us all).
exampleCollective noun for masters (An example of masters) (see list of collective nouns)
exasperate(verb) to make angry (exasperating their mother with their endless questions). n exasperation.
excavate(verb) 1 to uncover by digging (excavating Roman remains). 2 to dig up, to hollow out (excavate a building site). n excavator.
excavation(noun) 1 act of excavating. 2 a hole or trench made by digging.
exceed(verb) 1 to go beyond (exceed the speed limit). 2 to be greater or more numerous than (a price not exceeding $7000).
exceedingly(adverb) very, extremely (exceedingly difficult tasks).
excel(verb) (excelled, excelling) to do very well at, to get exceptionally good at (excel at tennis/excel at playing the piano).
excellence(noun) perfection, great merit (recognize her excellence as a musician/the excellence of his work).
excellent(adjective) very good, of a very high standard (excellent work/an excellent performance).
except1(verb) (fml) to leave out (only children are excepted from the admission charge).
except2, excepting(preposition) leaving out (everyone except my brother).
exception(noun) a person or thing that does not follow the rule (everyone will pay an admission fee with the exception of children). take exception to object (took exception to his remarks).
exceptional(adjective) different from others, unusual, remarkable (show exceptional understanding/have an exceptional musical talent). adv exceptionally.
excerpt(noun) a short passage taken out of a longer piece of writing or music.
excess(noun) 1 too much (an excess of alcohol). 2 the amount by which a thing is too much (the check was wrong and we paid an excess of $10). 3 bad and uncontrolled behavior (his drunken excesses).
excessive(adjective) more than is right or correct (an excessive amount of salt in the soup find the price excessive).
excessively(adverb) to excess; very.
exchange(verb) to give one thing and receive another in its place (exchanging his dollars for euros). n 1 the act of exchanging (an exchange of views/give food in exchange for gardening work). 2 a place where merchants meet to do business. 3 the changing of the money of one country into that of another. 4 a telephone center where lines are connected to each other.
excise1(noun) a tax on certain goods made within the country.
excise2(verb) to cut out, to cut away (surgeons excising the diseased tissue). n excision.
excitable(adjective) easily excited.
excite(verb) 1 to stir up feelings of happiness, expectation, etc (children excited by thoughts of Christmas). 2 to rouse (exciting feelings of envy in her friends). n excitement. adj exciting.
exclaim(verb) to cry out suddenly (“What’s this?” she exclaimed in surprise). adj exclamatory.
exclamation(noun) a word or words said suddenly or with feeling (utter an exclamation of amazement).
exclamation mark(noun) a mark of punctuation (!).
exclude(verb) 1 to shut out (exclude air from the bottle). 2 to leave out (excluding her from membership of the club). 3 to leave out; not to include (the price excludes drinks). n exclusion.
exclusive(adjective) 1 open to certain people only (an exclusive club). 2 sole (your exclusive role). 3 not shared (exclusive rights). adv exclusively.
excrement(noun) waste matter put out from the body (stepped in dog’s excrement).
excrete(verb) to put out what is useless from the body (excreting abnormal quantities of urine). adj excretory.
excruciating(adjective) 1 very great, intense (an excruciating pain in his back). 2 terrible, very bad (an excruciating performance on the violin).
excursion(noun) a trip made for pleasure, an outing (a bus excursion to the beach).
excuse(verb) 1 to let off (excused from playing baseball because of illness). 2 to forgive, to overlook (excuse her late arrival ek-scyooz ek-scyoo-za-bl/.
execute(verb) 1 to perform (executing a dance step). 2 to carry out (execute orders). 3 to put to death by law (execute murderers).
execution(noun) 1 the carrying out, performance, etc, of something (execution of orders/execution of difficult dance steps). 2 skill in performing music. 3 the act of putting to death by order of the law.
executioner(noun) an officer who puts to death condemned criminals.
executive(adjective) 1 concerned with making and carrying out decisions, especially in business (an executive director/executive powers). 2 having the power to carry out government’s decisions and laws. n 1 a person involved in the management of a firm. 2 the part of government that puts laws, etc, into effect.
executor(noun) a person who sees that a dead person’s written will is carried out (appoint two executors).
exemplify(verb) 1 to be an example (this machine exemplifies the firm’s high standard of work). 2 to illustrate by example (exemplify the problems).
exempt(verb) to free from, to let off (exempt certain goods from tax ig-zem-shun/.
exercise(noun) 1 an action performed to strengthen the body or part of the body. 2 a piece of work done for practice. 3 training (military exercises). 4 use (the exercise of patience). vb 1 to use, to employ (exercising patience). 2 to perform some kind of physical exercises. 3 to give exercise to, to train (exercise the horses).
exerciseCollective noun for physiotherapists (An exercise of physiotherapists) (see list of collective nouns)
exert(verb) to apply (exert influence to get his son a job/have to exert force). exert oneself to try hard.
exertion(noun) effort (tired after the exertion of climbing the hill).
exhale(verb) to breathe out. n exhalation.
exhaust(verb) 1 to use up completely (exhaust our food supplies). 2 to tire out (the journey exhausted her). 3 to say everything possible about (exhaust the subject). n 1 a passage by which used steam or gases are carried away from an engine (a car’s exhaust). 2 these gases.
exhausting(adjective) very tiring (an exhausting journey/an exhausting day).
exhaustion(noun) 1 the state of being tired out. 2 lack of any strength.
exhaustive(adjective) 1 very thorough, complete (an exhaustive search). 2 dealing with every possible aspect of a subject.
exhibit(verb) 1 to show in public (exhibit Picasso’s early works/exhibit roses at the flower show). 2 (fml) to display, to show (exhibiting no sign of emotion). n a thing shown in public.
exhibition(noun) 1 act of exhibiting. 2 a collection of many things brought together to be shown to the public (an art exhibition).
exhibitionist(noun) a person who behaves in such a way as to draw attention to himself or herself.
exhibitor(noun) a person who exhibits at a show (exhibitors in the art gallery).
exhilarate(verb) to make lively or happy (a swim in cold water exhilarating him). n exhilaration.
exile(noun) 1 long or unwilling absence from one’s home or country (an ex-general forced to live in exile). 2 a person living in a country other than his or her own (exiles talking about the old country). vb to send someone out of his or her own country as a punishment (they were exiled for taking part in a conspiracy against the government).
exist(verb) 1 to be. 2 to live. n existence. adj existent.
exit(noun) 1 a way out (several exits in the hall). 2 a going out (an exit by the crowd). vb to go out.
Exobiologystudy of extraterrestrial life (see list of branches of science)
exodus(noun) a going out or away by many people (e.g. the departure of the Jews from Egypt) (an exodus of people to the beach in the summer).
Exoplanetologystudy of exoplanets (see list of branches of science)
exorcism(noun) act of exorcising. n exorcist.
exorcize(verb) also exorcise (Br) to drive out evil spirits (exorcising the haunted house).
exotic(adjective) 1 foreign, introduced from another country (exotic fruits). 2 striking and unusual (exotic clothes).
expand(verb) 1 to make or become larger (metals expand when heated). 2 to spread out (his face expanded in a smile/his waistline has expanded). 3 to become more friendly or talkative (guests beginning to expand after a few drinks).
expanse(noun) a wide area (an expanse of green).
expansion(noun) act of expanding.
expansive(adjective) 1 wide (an expansive gesture with his arms). 2 ready to talk freely (become expansive when drunk).
expatriate(verb) to send someone out of his own country. n a person living or working in a country other than his or her own (expatriates living abroad).
expect(verb) 1 to wait for (expect a letter from her daughter). 2 to think it likely that something will happen (she expects to arrive today). 3 to require as a right or duty (teachers expecting obedience from the pupils).
expectancy(noun) state of being expectant.
expectant(adjective) hopeful, waiting for something to happen (children with expectant faces on Christmas morning). expectant mother a woman who is pregnant.
expectation(noun) 1 hope that something will happen (enter the competition full of expectation). 2 that which is expected (have high expectations on entering the competition).
expectationCollective noun for heirs (An expectation of heirs) (see list of collective nouns)
expectationCollective noun for midwives (An expectation of midwives) (see list of collective nouns)
expedience, expediency(noun) doing things not because they are right or moral but because they are likely to be successful or to one’s advantage (the government were not interested in people’s feelings—it was a question of expedience).
expedition(noun) 1 a journey made for a particular purpose (on a shopping expedition). 2 (fml) speed (carry out the tasks with expedition).
expel(verb) (expelled, expelling) 1 to drive out (air expelled from the lungs). 2 to force to go away (foreign journalists expelled from the war zone). 3 to dismiss officially from a school, club, etc (expel pupils for drug-taking). n expulsion.
expend(verb) to spend, to use up (expend all his energy).
expenditure(noun) 1 the amount spent (try to reduce your annual expenditure). 2 the act of spending (the expenditure of money).
expense(noun) 1 cost (purchase the car at his own expense). 2 spending of money, etc.
expensive(adjective) dear, costing a lot (expensive clothes/an expensive house).
experience(noun) 1 a happening in one’s own life. 2 knowledge gained from one’s own life or work. vb 1 to meet with. 2 to feel. 3 to undergo.
experiment(noun) something done so that the results may be studied, a test (scientific experiments). vb to do an experiment (object to scientists experimenting on animals). adj experimental.
expert(adjective) very skillful (an expert tennis player). n expert a person having special skill or knowledge (an expert in antiques). n expertise.
expiration(noun) (fml) 1 act of breathing out. 2 end (the expiration of the contract).
expire(verb) 1 (fml) to die (soldiers expiring on the battlefield). 2 (fml) to breathe out. 3 to come to an end (a bus pass that has expired).
expiry(noun) end (expiry of the lease on the apartment).
explain(verb) 1 to make clear (explain the instructions). 2 to give reasons for (explain his absence).
explanation(noun) a statement of the meaning of or the reasons for.
explanatory(adjective) helping to make clear (explanatory notes).
expletive(noun) 1 a swear word. adj serving to fill out.
explicable(adjective) able to be explained (behavior that seems scarcely explicable).
explicit(adjective) 1 stating exactly what is meant (explicit instructions). 2 with full details, with nothing hidden (explicit sex scenes).
explode(verb) 1 to burst or blow up with a loud noise (a bomb exploding/a gas boiler exploding). 2 to show to be untrue, to destroy (explode a myth).
exploit(noun) 1 a brave or outstanding deed (a film about the exploits of pilots during World War II). vb to make use of, especially for selfish reasons (rich employers exploiting illegal immigrants by paying low wages). n exploitation.
explore(verb) 1 to examine closely (explore all possibilities). 2 to travel through a country to find out all about it. n exploration. n explorer.
explosion(noun) 1 going off or bursting with a loud noise. 2 an outburst (an explosion of anger).
explosionCollective noun for Italians (An explosion of Italians) (see list of collective nouns)
explosive(adjective) able to cause an explosion. n any substance that will explode (the police found explosives in a barn).
exponent(noun) 1 a person who explains and supports a theory, belief, etc (an exponent of Marxism). 2 a person who is good at (an exponent of mime).
export(verb) to send goods to another country. n export an article that is exported. n exportation.
expose(verb) 1 to uncover (dig and expose the roots of the tree expose her legs to the sun). 2 to make known the truth about (newspapers exposing scandals about politicians). 3 to allow light to fall on (a photographic film).
exposition(noun) 1 (fml) a collection of things brought together to be shown to the public (an exposition of modern art). 2 a full explanation (an exposition of the company’s sales policy).
exposure(noun) 1 act of exposing (exposure to the sun/the newspaper’s exposure of fraud). 2 the effect on the body of being out in cold weather for a long time (climbers dying of exposure).
expound(verb) (fml) to explain fully (expound his theory).
express(verb) 1 to put into words, to state (expresses his ideas). 2 to make known by words or actions (express her anger by stamping her feet). adj 1 swift (by express post). 2 clearly stated (express instructions). n a fast train.
expression(noun) 1 a word or phrase (foreign expressions). 2 the look on one’s face (a surprised expression). 3 ability to read, play music, etc, with meaning or feeling.
expressive(adjective) with feeling or meaning (expressive eyes).
expressly(adverb) 1 clearly (I expressly forbade you to do that). 2 specially, with a certain definite purpose.
expulsion see expel.
expunge(verb) to rub out, to wipe out (expunging some passages from the book/expunge the tragedy from your memory).
expurgate(verb) to cut out of a book unsuitable or objectionable passages. n expurgation.
exquisite(adjective) 1 beautiful and delicate, very fine (exquisite china exquisite beauty). 2 (fml) strongly felt, acute (exquisite pain).
extant(adjective) still existing (customs still extant).
extemporaneous(adjective) (fml) unprepared (an extemporaneous speech).
extempore(adverb) and adj without preparation (because he was given no warning, he had to speak extempore at the meeting).
extemporize(verb) also extemporise (Br) 1 to speak without preparation. 2 to make up music as one is playing.
extend(verb) 1 to stretch out (extend his arms). 2 to reach or stretch (a forest extending for miles). 3 to offer (extend an invitation). 4 to make longer or bigger (extend the garden).
extension(noun) 1 an addition (build an extension to the house). 2 an additional period of time (get an extension to write his essay).
extensive(adjective) 1 large (extensive grounds). 2 wide, wide-ranging (extensive interests).
extent(noun) 1 the area or length to which something extends (the extent of his estate). 2 amount, degree (the extent of the damage).
extenuate(verb) (fml) to make excuses for in order to make seem less bad (nothing could extenuate such behavior). n extenuation.
extenuating(adjective) making a crime, etc, seem less serious by showing there is some excuse for it (extenuating circumstances).
exterior(adjective) outer (exterior walls). n the outside.
exterminate(verb) to kill to the last one, to destroy completely (exterminating rats on the farm). n extermination.
external(adjective) on the outside (external walls).
extinct(adjective) 1 no longer found in existence (an extinct species). 2 no longer burning (extinct volcanoes).
extinction(noun) 1 act of destroying. 2 the state of being no longer living (species threatened with extinction). 3 the putting out of (the extinction of lights/the extinction of fires).
extinctionCollective noun for dodos (An extinction of dodos) (see list of collective nouns)
extinguish(verb) 1 to put out (extinguish the fire). 2 to put an end to (extinguish all hope).
extirpate(verb) (fml) to destroy completely, to root out (a tyrant extirpating all opposition to him ek-stir-pay-shun/.
extol, extoll(verb) (extolled, extolling) (fml) to praise highly (extol the merits of the new product/extol her daughter’s virtues).
extort(verb) to take from by force or threats (bullies extorting money from younger boys). n extortion.
extortionate(adjective) 1 far too expensive (extortionate prices). 2 asking too much (extortionate demands).
extra(adjective) additional, more than is usual, expected or necessary (workers asking for extra money/require extra workers). adv more than usually. n something additional (school fees and extras such as dancing).
extract(verb) 1 to draw, take or pull out (extract teeth ek-stract/ 1 a passage taken from a book (a book of extracts from Shakespeare’s plays). 2 a substance drawn from a material and containing all its qualities (yeast extract).
extraction(noun) 1 act of drawing out (the extraction of teeth). 2 connection with a certain family or race (Spanish by extraction).
extradite(verb) to hand over a foreign criminal to the police of his own country. n extradition.
extramural(adjective) 1 organized for those who are not members (e.g. of a university) (extramural studies). 2 separate from or outside the area of one’s studies (extramural activities).
extraneous(adjective) having nothing to do with the subject.
extraordinary(adjective) 1 very unusual, remarkable (what extraordinary behavior). 2 (fml) additional to what is usual or ordinary (an extraordinary meeting of the committee).
extraterrestrial(adjective) existing or happening beyond the earth’s atmosphere (the possibility of extraterrestrial life).
extravagance(noun) 1 wasteful spending. 2 wastefulness.
extravagant(adjective) 1 spending or using a great deal, wasteful (extravagant use of materials/live in an extravagant way). 2 spending foolishly (an extravagant young woman). 3 foolish and improbable (extravagant schemes).
extreme(adjective) 1 farthest away (the extreme ends of the continent extreme members of the party). 4 intense, strong, not ordinary or usual (calling for extreme measures of punishment). n 1 the end, the farthest point (the extremes of the earth). 2 something as far or as different as possible from something else (the extremes of wealth and poverty). 3 the greatest or highest degree (the extremes of heat in the desert). adv extremely.
extremist(noun) a person who holds extreme ideas (a political extremist). Also adj.
extremity(noun) 1 the farthest point (the extremities of the earth). 2 (fml) a situation of great misfortune, distress or danger (in an extremity of poverty). 3 (fml) the farther parts of the body, i.e. the hands and feet (poor circulation in her extremities).
extricate(verb) to set free from a difficult position (extricating the dog from the hole in which he was stuck/extricate the firm from its financial difficulties).
extrovert(noun) a person who is extremely outgoing and self-assured. Also adj.
exuberant(adjective) 1 vigorous, strong (exuberant growth of plants). 2 in high spirits (in exuberant mood). n exuberance.
exude(verb) to ooze out, to give off (exuding perspiration/exude confidence).
exult(verb) to rejoice very much, to express joy (exulting over their victory). adj exultant. n exultation.
exultationCollective noun for fireworks (An exultation of fireworks) (see list of collective nouns)
eye(noun) 1 the organ by means of which we see. 2 a small hole in a needle. 3 the seed bud of a potato. vb to look at, to watch closely (eying his friend’s cake with envy/eyed the policeman warily).
eyebrow(noun) an arc of hair on the brow bone above the eye.
eyelash(noun) each of the short hairs extending from the edge of the eyelid.
eyelid(noun) the fold of skin that can be lowered to close the eye.
eye-opener(noun) something very surprising.
eyesight(noun) a person’s ability to see (her eyesight is very poor.
eyesore(noun) something very ugly (apartment blocks that are an eyesore on the landscape).
eyesoreCollective noun for graffiti (An eyesore of graffiti) (see list of collective nouns)
eyewitness(noun) a person who sees an event happen (eyewitnesses of the accident).
GKNXT Encyclopedia
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